Archive for August, 2021

The significance of the ritual center/ sanctuary /place of worship from Göbekli Tepe. What they were used for practically.

August 10, 2021

Researchers do not know or rather cannot say for sure what specific ritual needs the center was built for. The general function of the premises remains mysterious. Are they some cult monuments, sanctuary, non-domestic ritual buildings? .. or temples proper? . That is, it is not known for sure what kind of rituals or activities were practiced there in concrete terms: – multiannual gatherings, holidays, festivals, initiation rituals or related to the cult of the dead and ancestors, cultic feasts, etc. It is understandable that they were led by shamans. There they practiced complex rituals and when we say ritual we say religion.

From https://www.academia.edu › Klaus_…(PDF) Klaus Schmidt Gobekli Tepe | Fatih Gumus – Academia.edu “Gobekli Tepe seems to have been a regional center where communities met to engage in complex rites.”

Yes, complex rites and rituals that contain elements of some forms of early religions, animism, totemism, shamanism. they took place under the umbrella of a common unitary cult specific to the area, which today we would call religion, rituals led and coordinated by shamans.

From https://www.tellerreport.com › life Göbekli Tepe: Festivals and orgies paved the way for civilization … “By erecting monumental statues of their unknown gods, they also laid the foundation for social contact over greater distances. As a reward and incentive for this work, which devoured considerable resources, there were “meals”, which at times probably degenerated into large feasts or possibly even orgies.Since these festivals also served for representation and the exchange of experiences, they also contributed to the progress of civilization.”

See also, https://www.researchgate.net › 2357…(PDF) The role of cult and feasting in the emergence of Neolithic …

My research has led me to repeatedly and even obsessively encounter some elements and ideas that led me to draw some preliminary conclusions:

• The inhabitants of the area adjacent to Gobekli Tepe went through periods of time and moments of crisis and famine in which living and even survival were extremely difficult, so they went through major crises. Survival was on the verge of extinction, so a matter of life and death. This is how I explain the burial moments of the monuments.

• Hunting even if the action is perfectly organized, but also hunting leads to a random result. Even if there are many herds, hunters do not act in large groups. So sometimes gathering several is both necessary and explainable.

The principle, idea, or element that I met repeatedly, returning almost obsessively and present was LIFE. Because it was always present in the concerns and daily existence.

• Then I understood that those hunter-gatherers realized that survival necessarily requires organization, cooperation and unity. That is, quite early there was an understanding of the need and obligation of collaboration. As a consequence they acquired the consciousness of a distinct, cohesive and unitary community.

  • • Regardless of their cosmological conception, the inhabitants of Gobekli Tepe did not make complex philosophies. They probably did not invent or expect the help of any deity-type entity. They did not resort to an intermediary who directly questioned and implored life or the spirit of life. They tried to understand to tame and approach the nature with which they had direct contact. Even if intermediate by shamans. Nature was manifest through spirits.                    
  • • I hypothesize that the T-pillars and the T-symbol continuously represented from Gobekli Tepe (9,000 I.E.N.) until after 5,500 years to the Sumerians (3,500 I.E.N.) the being, the will to live, LIFE in general.
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From http://www.academia.edu › The_ori…(PDF) The origin of Sumerian tongue | Sumerian Language …Sumerian me [BEING] (750x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. me “Being, divine properties enabling cosmic activity; office; .

So in the beginning, (9,600 I.E.N.) there was only the spirit of life that had the dwelling in the T-shaped pillars. In this way the pillar, the stone did not have a soul, but had a spiritual charge, the spirit.

From https://www.researchgate.net › 2700&#8230; (PDF) Göbekli Tepe – The Stone Age Sanctuaries. New results of … << Klaus Schmidt: “The question of who is being represented by the highly styliside T shaped pillars remains open, as we can not say with certitude if concepts of gods existed at this time.So the general function of enclosures remains mysterious, but it is clear that the pillar statues in the centre of these enclosures represented very powerful beings.If gods existed in the minds of Early Neolithic people, there is an overwhelming probability that the T-shape is the first known monumental depiction of gods”>>

I understood that the monuments represent a symbol, landmark and homage to life. Many times the inhabitants went through periods of major crises. In conditions of maximum adversity for the development of life, they restricted their activity and put the monuments in conservation. Then, miraculously, they seemed to recover. With optimism, new forces and hopes continued their existence. They rebuilt the symbols of life and found new resources of hope and faith. The T-shaped pillars have the function of totemic pillars that represent the community, its unity, its solidarity. But also its continuity and strength.

Note. 1. Fertility is the creation and perpetuation of life, so a fertility celebration is somehow one of life. 2. Death is the continuation of the life cycle on another plane. Life and death are closely linked in a natural cycle. 3. At Gobekli Tepe (which is part of Upper Mesopotamia), we have some mounds, it looks artificial and also a temple. In Sumerian literature there is talk of Ekur, the “mountain temple,” and Duku, the “holy mound.”

Additional documentation / A d d i t i o n a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n

From https://www.sumerian.org › prot-sum  The Proto-Sumerian Language Invention Process John Halloran << “Diakonoff wrote in 1983, “I shall define as ‘archaic’ any language which, on the lexical level, has no or only poorly developed means of expressing abstract ideas, and on the grammatical level, is based on the opposition ‘action vs. state’.” “In an archaic language there are no adequate means, either lexical or grammatical, to express such abstract ideas as ‘time’, ‘space’, ‘subject’, ‘object’, ’cause’, ‘beauty’, ‘liberty’, ‘invention’, ‘multiplication’, ‘division’ and many others, some of which appear to us elemental, as, e.g., the distinction between ‘darkness’, ‘calamity’, ‘illness’, and ‘pain’, etc., or between ‘good’, ‘enjoyable’, ‘kind’, ‘happy’, ‘useful’, ‘lucky’, etc. However, human thought is impossible without inductive thinking, i.e., thought which proceeds from particular facts to a generalization.” “The development of lexical and grammatical means to express general ideas opens the way, on the one hand, for scientific thought, which has as its goal a non-emotional cognition of objects, and on the other, for specifically artistic thought, whose goal is the emotional cognition of man’s attitude toward and relation to objects.” Diakonoff continues, “Sumerian is an archaic language in which abstract ideas were in the making: this is why both Sumerian language and Sumerian mythology are so interesting. It has no means to express a subject-object relation, and very inadequate means to express the idea of time etc.” [From a 1983 paper which, “will discuss the Sumerian numerals from the point of view of their place on the road of development of abstract thinking,” >>

From Neolithic House Party – Eastern Turkey Tours https://www.easternturkeytour.org › neolithic-house-party <<So, our stone turtle dancers from Nevali Çori, a shamanistic dance in altered states of consciousness with mystical turtle beings in a celebration of life and death, or just dinner? >>

See https://www.britannica.com › topic Feast – The significance of seasonal renewal in ancient Mesopotamia … ================= If my opinion that the T-pillars represent the essence and the spirit of life is somewhat singular, instead the vision on the role and purpose of the whole ritual complex, namely that it is a tribute and memorial to life is shared by others:

From GOBEKLITEPE IN TURKEY: THE WORLD’S … – Nikola Benin https://www.turkeyhomes.com › post Gobeklitepe In Turkey: The World’s First Temple – from blog – Turkey … 24 ian. 2019 — <<Theories arose that hunters held food feasts here, as a celebration of life, since finding food was their primary concern >>

From https://tr.pinterest.com › pin 2014/03/09 – YENİ: Göbekli Tepe Haber | Alman Arkeoloji – Pinterest 2014.03.09 – NEW:Göbekli Tepe Newsletter | Deutsches Archäologisches . … <<For them, a funeral is a great celebration of life, much like a ..>>

From Göbekli Tepe: Neolithic Gathering and Feasting at the Beginning of Food Production By Jens Notroff & Oliver Dietrich https://www.asor.org/anetoday/2017/07/gobekli-tepe/ << Large communal tasks executed as collective work events, reflected in the apparently continuous construction activity at Göbekli Tepe, provided a unifying reason for people to come together. Additionally ethnographic studies provide more examples demonstrating that work forces necessary for such collaborative projects can be gathered with the prospect of lavish feasts. That this may have been the case at Göbekli Tepe is further corroborated by a closer look at the massive amount of filling material of the enclosures, which consists of limestone rubble, flint artefacts, fragments of stone vessels, other ground stone tools, and in particular an impressively large numbers of animal bones – above all gazelle and aurochs. These remains hint at the consumption of enormous amounts of meat, most likely during feasts framing these large-scale meetings and communal activities, including monument construction. Repetitive feasting at Göbekli Tepe may have played an essential role not only in creating and strengthening social bonds among the individuals and groups meeting there, but must also have stressed the economic potential of these hunter-gatherers to repeatedly feed such large crowds. In response to this pressure, new food resources and processing techniques may have been explored, subsequently paving the way for a complete change in subsistence strategy. In this scenario, the early appearance of monumental religious architecture motivating work feasts to draw as many hands as possible for the execution of complex, collective tasks is changing our understanding of one of the key moments in human history: the emergence of agriculture and animal husbandry – and the onset of food production and the Neolithic way of live.>>

From What is a Celebration of Life Service? | Lassahn Funeral Homeshttps://www.lassahnfuneralhomes.com › celebration-of-…

Feasting, Social Complexity, and the Emergence of the Early Neolithic of Upper Mesopotamia: A View from Göbekli Tepe “The present contribution explores the possible role of feasting in the emergence of social complexity , hierarchical societies and the shift to the Neolithic way of life in Upper Mesopotamia ….Vast evidence for feasting at the site seems to hint at work feasts to accomplish the common, religiously motivated task of constructing these enclosures.” From https://books.google.ro › booksAnthropomorphic Images in Rock Art Paintings and Rock CarvingsTerence Meaden, Herman Bender — 2020 · Social Science “Gobekli Tepe, Enclosure C, Pillar 12 with her ribs and backbone conspicuously sticking out, which speaks of extreme hunger and starvation

Let’s not forget: an interesting aspect, unnoticed by someone else until now. After sacred precincts were burried, after some time were rebuilt, but they kept the shape of the pillars unchanged, namely that in T. Does this fact show that it was an extremely strong and important symbol that signified something, or maybe it was just the mark, the sign by which that civilization and population identified? The initial meaning may become blurred over time. I have to draw a parallel with the symbol of the cross used for 2,000 years. Here we have 2,500 years (9,600-7,000 B.C.) During the 2,500 years they have not changed shape by a millimeter! Above you have my opinion why.

Semnificatia centrului ritualic, a sanctuarelor/ lacaselor de cult de la Göbekli Tepe.La ce foloseau practic.

August 6, 2021

Cercetatorii nu stiu sau mai bine zis nu pot afirma cu siguranta pentru ce necesitati ritualice specifice a fost construit centrul .Functia generala a incintelor ramane misterioasa.E vorba de niste monumente cultice, cladiri rituale nedomestice ?.. sau altare ori temple propriu-zise ?. Adica nu se stie sigur ce fel de ritualuri sau activitati sau practicat acolo in mod concret: – adunari multianuale, sarbatori(ri), festivaluri, ritualuri de initiere sau legate de cultul mortilor si stramosilor, ospete cultice etc.Este de inteles ca acestea erau conduse de samani.

Acolo sau practicat ritualuri complexe si cand zicem ritual zicem religie:


https://www.academia.edu › Klaus_…(PDF) Klaus Schmidt Gobekli Tepe | Fatih Gumus – Academia.edu

“Gobekli Tepe seems to have been a regional centre where comunities met to engage in complex rites” Lb.Rom.: “Gobekli Tepe pare sa fi fost un centru regional in care comunitatile s-au intalnit pentru a se angaja in rituri complexe.

Da, rituri si ritualuri complexe care contin elemente al unor forme de religii timpurii, animism, totemism, samanism.Indiferent ca unele ritualuri par a fi cazone toate ceremoniile legate de cultul mortilor si stramosilor,ceremoniile si sarbatorile fertilitatii, cele de initiere si toate celelalte se desfasurau sub umbrela unui cult comun unitar specific zonei, pe care azi l-am numi religie, ritualuri conduse si coordonat de samani.

Din https://www.tellerreport.com › life Göbekli Tepe: Festivals and orgies paved the way for civilization … “By erecting monumental statues of their unknown gods, they also laid the foundation for social contact over greater distances. As a reward and incentive for this work, which devoured considerable resources, there weremeals”, which at times probably degenerated into large feasts or possibly even orgies.Since these festivals also served for representation and the exchange of experiences, they also contributed to the progress of civilization.” Lb.Rom.: “Ridicând statui monumentale ale zeilor lor necunoscuți, ei au pus, de asemenea, bazele contactului social pe distanțe mai mari. Ca recompensă și stimulent pentru această lucrare, care a devorat resurse considerabile, au existat “mese “, care uneori probabil degenerează în sărbători mari. sau chiar chiar orgii. Deoarece aceste festivaluri au servit și pentru reprezentare și schimb de experiențe, au contribuit și la progresul civilizației. “

A se vedea si https://www.researchgate.net › 2357…(PDF) The role of cult and feasting in the emergence of Neolithic …

Cercetarea mea a facut sa intalnesc in mod repetat si chiar obsesiv, cateva elemente si idei care m-au determinat sa trag niste concluzii preliminare:

  • Locuitorii ariei limitrofe lui Gobekli Tepe au trecut prin intervale de timp si momente de criza si foamete in care traiul si chiar supravietuirea au fost extrem de dificile, deci au trecut prin crize majore.Supravietuirea a fost la limita pragului extinctiei, deci o chestiune de viata si de moarte. Asa imi explic momentele de ingropari ale monumentelor.
  • Vanatoarea chiar daca actiunea este perfect organizata, dar si vanatul conduc la un rezultat aleatoriu.Chiar daca sunt multi haitasi, vanatorii nu actioneaza in grupuri mari.Asa incat adunarea cateodata a mai multora este atat necesara cat si explicabila.
  • Principiul, ideea, sau elementul pe care l-am intalnit in mod repetat, revenind aproape obsesiv si prezent a fost VIATA.Pentru ca a fost tot timpul prezent in preocuparile si existenta zilnica.
  • Apoi am inteles ca acei vanatori-culegatori au realizat ca supravietuirea necesita obligatoriu organizare, cooperare si unitate.Adica destul de devreme a existat intelegerea necesitatii si obligativitatii colaborarii.Ca si consecinta au dobandit constiinta unei comunitati distincte, inchegate si unitare.
  • Indiferent de conceptia lor cosmologica, locuitorii din Gobekli Tepe nu au facut filozofii complexe. Probabil nu au inventat nici asteptat ajutorul vre-unei entitati de tipul divinitatii. Nu au recurs la un intermediar cia au interogat si implorat direct viata sau duhul vietii. Au incercat sa inteleaga sa imblanzeasca si sa-si apropie natura cu care aveau contact direct continuu.Chiar daca prin intermediul samanilor.Natura era manifesta prin spirite.
  • Eu avansez ipoteza ca pilonii T si simbolul T au reprezentat in mod continuu de la Gobekli Tepe (9.000 I.E.N.)pana dupa 5.500 de ani la sumerieni (3.500 I.E.N.) fiinta, vointa de a trai, VIATA in general.
  • https://cdli.ucla.edu › tools › archsigns proto-cuneiform signs sign “me”:

http://oracc.museum.upenn.edu › te…Rezultate de pe webAncient Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses – Technical terms11 feb. 2013 — The Sumerian word ME (plural MEs) denotes a key concept of Mesopotamian religion. It is often translated as “divine powers”

http://www.academia.edu › The_ori…(PDF) The origin of Sumerian tongue | Sumerian Language …Sumerian me [BEING] (750x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. me “Being, divine properties enabling cosmic activity; office; .

https://cdli.ucla.edu › tools › archsigns proto-cuneiform signs sign “me”:

Astfel incat la inceputuri, (9.600 I.E.N.) a existat doar spiritul vietii care avea salasul in pilonii in forma de T.In felul asta pilonul, piatra nu avea tocmai suflet, ci avea o incarcatura spirituala, spirit.

Din https://www.researchgate.net › 2700&#8230; (PDF) Göbekli Tepe – The Stone Age Sanctuaries. New results of …

Klaus Schmidt: “The question of who is being represented by the highly styliside T shaped pillars remains open, as we can not say with certitude if concepts of gods existed at this time.So the general function of enclosures remains mysterious, but it is clear that the pillar statues in the centre of these enclosures represented very powerful beings.If gods existed in the minds of Early Neolithic people, there is an overwhelming probability that the T-shape is the first known monumental depiction of gods”

lb.Rom. Intrebarea ‘cine este reprezentat de stâlpii în formă de T foarte stilizați’ rămâne deschisă, deoarece nu putem spune cu certitudine dacă conceptele de zei existau în acest moment. Deci funcția generală a incintelor rămâne misterioasă, dar este clar că statuile stâlpului în centrul acestor incinte au reprezentat ființe foarte puternice. Dacă zeii existau în mintea oamenilor neolitici timpurii, există o probabilitate copleșitoare ca forma T să fie prima descriere monumentală cunoscută a zeilor “

Eu am inteles ca monumentele reprezinta un simbol, reper si omagiu adus vietii.De mai multe ori locujtorii au trecut prin perioade de crize majore. In conditii de adversitate maxima pentru desfasurarea vietii, si-au restrans activitatea si au pus monumentele in conservare. Apoi ca prin miracol pare si-au revenit.Cu optimism, noi forte si sperante si-au continuat existenta.Au construit din nou simbolurile vietii si au gasit noi resurse de speranta si credinta. Pilonii cu forma T au functia de stalpi totemici care reprezinta comunitatea, unitatea, solidaritatea sa. Dar si continuitatea si forta ei.

Nota. 1.Fertilitatea este crearea si perpetuarea vietii, asadar o sarbatoare a fertilitatii este cumva una a vietii. 2. Moartea este continuarea ciclului vietii pe alt plan.Viata si moarteasunt strans legate intr-un ciclu natural. 3. La Gobekli Tepe (care face parte din Mesopotamia Superioara), avem niste movile, pare-se artificiale si deasemenea un templu. In literatura sumeriana se face vorbire de Ekur, “templul din munte” si Du-ku, “movila sfanta”. Documentare aditionala / A d d i t i o n a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n

https://www.sumerian.org › prot-sum The Proto-Sumerian Language Invention Process John Halloran “Diakonoff wrote in 1983, “I shall define as ‘archaic’ any language which, on the lexical level, has no or only poorly developed means of expressing abstract ideas, and on the grammatical level, is based on the opposition ‘action vs. state’.” “In an archaic language there are no adequate means, either lexical or grammatical, to express such abstract ideas as ‘time’, ‘space’, ‘subject’, ‘object’, ’cause’, ‘beauty’, ‘liberty’, ‘invention’, ‘multiplication’, ‘division’ and many others, some of which appear to us elemental, as, e.g., the distinction between ‘darkness’, ‘calamity’, ‘illness’, and ‘pain’, etc., or between ‘good’, ‘enjoyable’, ‘kind’, ‘happy’, ‘useful’, ‘lucky’, etc. However, human thought is impossible without inductive thinking, i.e., thought which proceeds from particular facts to a generalization.” “The development of lexical and grammatical means to express general ideas opens the way, on the one hand, for scientific thought, which has as its goal a non-emotional cognition of objects, and on the other, for specifically artistic thought, whose goal is the emotional cognition of man’s attitude toward and relation to objects.”

Diakonoff continues, “Sumerian is an archaic language in which abstract ideas were in the making: this is why both Sumerian language and Sumerian mythology are so interesting. It has no means to express a subject-object relation, and very inadequate means to express the idea of time etc.” [From a 1983 paper which, “will discuss the Sumerian numerals from the point of view of their place on the road of development of abstract thinking,”

In lb.Romana: Diakonoff scria în 1983: „Voi defini ca„ arhaic ”orice limbaj care, la nivel lexical, nu are sau doar mijloace slab dezvoltate de exprimare a ideilor abstracte, iar la nivel gramatical, se bazează pe acțiunea opoziției vs. ‘. ” „Într-un limbaj arhaic nu există mijloace adecvate, fie lexicale, fie gramaticale, pentru a exprima idei abstracte precum„ timp ”,„ spațiu ”,„ subiect ”,„ obiect ”,„ cauză ”,„ frumusețe ”,„ libertate ”, „invenție”, „multiplicare”, „împărțire” și multe altele, dintre care unele ni se par elementare, cum ar fi, de exemplu, distincția între „întuneric”, „calamitate”, „boală” și „durere” etc., sau între „bine”, „plăcut”, „amabil”, „fericit”, „util”, „norocos” etc.Cu toate acestea, gândirea umană este imposibilă fără gândirea inductivă, adică gândirea care trece de la fapte particulare la o generalizare. “” Dezvoltarea mijloacelor lexicale și gramaticale de exprimare a ideilor generale deschide calea, pe de o parte, pentru gândirea științifică, care ca obiectiv o cunoaștere non-emoțională a obiectelor și, pe de altă parte, pentru gândirea specifică artistică, al cărei scop este cunoașterea emoțională a atitudinii și relației omului cu obiectele. ” Diakonoff continuă: „Sumeriana era o limba arhaica în care se aflau idei abstracte: de aceea atât limbajul sumerian, cât și mitologia sumeriană sunt atât de interesante. Nu are mijloace pentru a exprima o relație subiect-obiect și mijloace foarte inadecvate pentru a exprima idee de timp etc. ” [Dintr-o lucrare din 1983 care „va discuta numerele sumeriene din punctul de vedere al locului lor pe drumul dezvoltării gândirii abstracte”

Vezi: https://www.britannica.com › topic Feast – The significance of seasonal renewal in ancient Mesopotamia … Sarbatoare – Semnificatia reinnoirii sezoniere in Mesopotamia antica… ========================= Daca opinia mea ca pilonii T reprezinta esenta si spiritul vietii este oarecum singulara, in schimb viziunea asupra rolului si scopului intregului complex ritualic si anume ca este un omagiu si memorial adus vietii este impartasita si de altii:
Din Neolithic House Party – Eastern Turkey Tours
https://www.easternturkeytour.org › neolithic-house-party “Deci, dansatorii noștri de broască țestoasă din Nevali Çori, un dans șamanist în stări modificate de conștiință cu ființe țestoase mistice într-o sărbătoare a vieții și a morții, sau doar cina?”

Din GOBEKLITEPE IN TURKEY: THE WORLD’S … – Nikola Benin https://www.turkeyhomes.com › post Gobeklitepe In Turkey: The World’s First Temple – from blog – Turkey … 24 ian. 2019 — << Au apărut teorii că vânătorii țineau aici sărbători alimentare, ca o sărbătoare a vieții, deoarece găsirea mâncării era principala lor preocupare >>

Din https://tr.pinterest.com › pin 2014/03/09 – YENİ: Göbekli Tepe Haber | Alman Arkeoloji – Pinterest 2014.03.09 – NEW:Göbekli Tepe Newsletter | Deutsches Archäologisches . … <<Pentru ei, înmormântarea este o mare sărbătoare a vieții, la fel ca o…>>

Göbekli Tepe: Neolithic Gathering and Feasting at the Beginning of Food Production By Jens Notroff & Oliver Dietrich https://www.asor.org/anetoday/2017/07/gobekli-tepe/

<< Sarcinile comunale mari executate ca evenimente de muncă colectivă, reflectate în activitatea de construcție aparent continuă de la Göbekli Tepe, au oferit un motiv unitar pentru ca oamenii să se reunească. În plus, studiile etnografice oferă mai multe exemple care demonstrează că forțele de muncă necesare pentru astfel de proiecte de colaborare pot fi adunate cu perspectiva unor sărbători fastuoase. Faptul că acest lucru ar fi putut fi cazul la Göbekli Tepe este confirmat în continuare de o privire mai atentă asupra cantității masive de material de umplere a incintelor, care constă din moloz de calcar, artefacte din silex, fragmente de vase de piatră, alte unelte de piatră măcinate și, în special, un număr impresionant de mare de oase de animale – mai presus de toate gazela și aurocul. Acestea rămân aluzii la consumul unor cantități enorme de carne, cel mai probabil în timpul sărbătorilor care încadrează aceste întâlniri la scară largă și activități comunale, inclusiv construcția monumentelor. Sărbătorile repetitive la Göbekli Tepe ar fi putut juca un rol esențial nu numai în crearea și consolidarea legăturilor sociale între indivizii și grupurile care se întâlnesc acolo, dar trebuie să fi subliniat, de asemenea, potențialul economic al acestor vânători-culegători de a hrăni în mod repetat astfel de mulțimi mari. Ca răspuns la această presiune, noi resurse alimentare și tehnici de procesare ar fi putut fi explorate, deschizând ulterior calea pentru o schimbare completă a strategiei de subzistență. În acest scenariu, apariția timpurie a arhitecturii religioase monumentale care motivează sărbătorile de lucru pentru a atrage cât mai multe mâini posibil pentru executarea unor sarcini complexe și colective ne schimbă înțelegerea asupra unuia dintre momentele cheie din istoria umanității: apariția agriculturii și creșterii animalelor – și apariția producției de alimente și a modului de viață neolitic. >>

Din What is a Celebration of Life Service? | Lassahn Funeral Homeshttps://www.lassahnfuneralhomes.com › celebration-of-… <<E interesant; înmormântările și sărbătorile vieții au multe în comun >>

Feasting, Social Complexity, and the Emergence of the Early Neolithic of Upper Mesopotamia: A View from Göbekli Tepe “The present contribution explores the possible role of feasting in the emergence of social complexity , hierarchical societies and the shift to the Neolithic way of life in Upper Mesopotamia ….Vast evidence for feasting at the site seems to hint at work feasts to accomplish the common, religiously motivated task of constructing these enclosures.”Lb.Rom.: „Contribuția de față explorează posibilul rol al sărbătoririi în apariția complexității sociale, societățile ierarhice și trecerea la modul de viață neolitic din Mesopotamia Superioară …. Dovezi vaste despre sărbătorirea la fața locului pare să sugereze sărbători de lucru pentru a realiza sarcina comună, motivată religios, de a construi aceste incinte. “

A se vedea, Hayden, Brian. 2009. The proof is in the pudding: feasting and the origins of domestication. Current Anthropology 50(5): 597–601.

Anthropomorphic Images in Rock Art Paintings and Rock CarvingsTerence Meaden, Herman Bender — 2020 · Social Science “Gobekli Tepe, incinta C, stâlpul 12 cu coastele și coloana vertebrală care ies în evidență, ceea ce vorbește despre foamete extremă și murit de foame”

….si unde naiba sunt coastele si sira spinarii aici !?

Sa nu uit: un aspect interesant, neremarcat de altcineva pana acum.Categoric pilonii T aveau o semnificatie majora pentru locuitorii arii largi (mai largi decat Gobekli Tepe) unde au fost gasiti.De fiecare data dupa ce au ingropat incintele sacre cand le-au reconstruit, au pastrat neschimbata forma pilonilor si anume aceea in T. Aceast fapt arata ca era un simbol extrem de puternic si important care semnifica ceva, sau poate era numai marca, semnul prin care acea civilizatie si populatie se identifica ? Se poate ca semnificatia initiala sa devina incetosata cu trecerea timpului. Sunt nevoit sa fac o paralela cu simbolul crucii folosit 2.000 de ani.Aici avem 2.500 de ani (9.600-7.000 B.C.)Pe parcursul celor 2.500 de ani nu au schimbat forma cu nici-un milimetru !

Marte, radiatii si gravitatie artificiala

August 2, 2021

Lipsa gravitatiei nu reprezinta o problema pe intervale de timp scurte.Insa devine o mare problema cand ne gandim la un drum spre Marte (eventual si inapoi).La intervale de timp de de genul a 180 zile (6 luni) si peste, lipsa gravitatiei are ca rezultat atrofierea musculaturii, decalcifiere si o stare fizico-psihica destul de proasta.Se pare ca deocamdata pentru Elon Musk crearea gravitatiei artificiale nu este o prioritate, adica nu o prima proritate.Si se pare nici radiatiile/scutul antiradiatii.La primele misiuni nu vor fi turisti ci probabil astronauti cu conditie fizica buna si antrenati.Pentru el numai siguranta misiunii si cea a astronautilor este importanta.Adica practic sa nu explodeze ceva si sa se intoarca in viata.Nu exclud ca se poate gandi si la costuri mai mari.Orice gram in plus costa.Nici nu si-a batut mult capul cu solutii concrete de generare a Gravitatiei Artificiale.I sa aratat o propunere cu 2 rachete Starship gemene care sa fie distantate cu un gen de lonjeron sau cablu apoi rotite.

Proposition de Mike DaRosa https://blogs.letemps.ch/pierre-brisson/wp-content/uploads/sites/31/2021/05/Capture-decran-2021-05-22-195028-768×331.jpg

Din https://www.universetoday.com/143368/real-artificial-gravity-for-spacexs-starship/ Pentru a aborda acest lucru, Youtuber smallstars ( https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCclj1b5yzghQg1edA9TLhBg ) a propus un concept pe care îl numește Gravity Link Starship (GLS), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3CRiJTJikjk o variantă a navei StarsX a SpaceX care va putea să-și asigure propria gravitație artificială. Dansul a zis intr-o doara ca e bine asa (!?).Mai exista o alta propunere ca racheta sa fie facuta prin alipirea a 2 sectiuni longitudinale ale rachetei si apoi rotite 90 grade.

Gravité artificielle avec Starship – Exploration spatiale
https://blogs.letemps.ch/pierre-brisson/wp-content/uploads/sites/31/2021/05/Capture-decran-2021-05-10-162857-750×410.jpg

÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷÷
Eu vin cu o propunere care este simpla si sigura.Este cumva o taiere a nodului Gordian. Am aflat cu surprindere ca centrul de greutate al unei nave-racheta gen Starship este pe undeva foarte aproape de mijloc.

Din Study of artificial gravity systems for long duration space …https://upcommons.upc.edu › bitstream › handle

  1. PDFby Ó Santín Blanco · 2020 — GLS2 Artificial Gravity for SpaceX Starship (smallstars) . … Starship’s center of mass (which we will consider to be in the middle of the ship (… centrul de masă al Starship pe care îl vom considera că se află în mijlocul navei)

Atunci de ce sa nu se ralizeze separarea, divizarea rachetei chiar la mijloc?

Starship SN4 assembly diagram V4.8 - Updated 04/17/2020: StarshipDevelopment

Reddit
Starship SN4 assembly diagram V4.8 – Updated 04/17/2020: StarshipDevelopment https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQWfGd9Aw3BCLcin4f0HKoIOrs1yadZ_ziS-N4V5VITpPpdoskoidZwycM9PTZqOL_xxgs&usqp=CAU
Starship Compendium – ElonX.net
https://www.elonx.net/wp-content/uploads/EU5wwatXYAA4ali_Rafael_Adamy-scaled.jpg

O jumatate contine rezervoarele CH4+Lox+ motoarele si cealalta compartimentul incarcaturii utile (payload). Apoi sa fie indepartate jumatatile, deplasandule de-alungul axei longitudinale.Alta posibilitate ar fi rotirea fiecarei “jumatati” 90gr, perpendicular pe axa longitudinala initiala. Ele vor fi legate de un lonjeron (+ cablu pentru siguranta?).Odata cu indepartarea, are loc inceperea rotirii.Norocul este ca o jumatate contine rezervoarele de combustibil si motoarele ia cealalta jumatate cargo-bay contine mijloacele de sustinere a vietii si echipajul.

https://topwar.ru/uploads/posts/2019-10/thumbs/1572478168_spacex-starship-cutaway-diagram-by-julian-schindler.jpg

Echipajul nu are nevoie ca rezervoarele de combustibil si motoarele principale sa le fie in apropiere.

Cutaway diagram of SpaceX Starship | human Mars
https://eugenrau.files.wordpress.com/2021/08/3e235-spacex2bstarship2bcutaway2bdiagram.jpg

Eu vad o lungime a tether=legaturii intre cele doua jumatati de cca 100 m? pentru a obtine gravitatie spre 1g la o turatie rezonabila.

Din https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artificial_gravity << De exemplu, pentru a produce o greutate standard, ɡ0 = 9,8 m / s2 cu o navă spațială rotativă de 15 s, raza de rotație ar trebui să fie de 56 m (184 ft), în timp ce o perioadă de 30 s ar necesita să fie de 224 m (735 ft). >>

Cu cat este mai mica turatia, cu atat nu se mai discerne diferenta intre gravitatia naturala si cea artificiala.(efecte secundare minime).In apropierea lui Marte, realipirea jumatatilor se face f.simplu, sucesiunea operatiilor fiind in sens invers.Probabil trebuie franare, altfel la micsorarea lungimii legaturii turatia creste.Propun ca articulatiile si legaturile intre cele doua jumatati si lonjeron sa aiba ceva grade de libertate, permita pivotarea/rotirea.Pentru ca i-mi e teama ca nu cumva toata cosmelia sa intre intr-o miscare de rotatie necontrolata, situatie in care pot aparea forte mari care sa rupa elemente structurale.Elon Musk va trebui sa se ocupe atat de scutul de radiatii cat si de gravitatia artificiala pentru ca nu poate lua banii turistilor si apoi “sa-i lase in gara” intr-o stare jalnica, decalcifiati, cu probleme psihice, cel mai posibil epave umane.