The significance of the ritual center/ sanctuary /place of worship from Göbekli Tepe. What they were used for practically.


Researchers do not know or rather cannot say for sure what specific ritual needs the center was built for. The general function of the premises remains mysterious. Are they some cult monuments, sanctuary, non-domestic ritual buildings? .. or temples proper? . That is, it is not known for sure what kind of rituals or activities were practiced there in concrete terms: – multiannual gatherings, holidays, festivals, initiation rituals or related to the cult of the dead and ancestors, cultic feasts, etc. It is understandable that they were led by shamans. There they practiced complex rituals and when we say ritual we say religion.

From https://www.academia.edu › Klaus_…(PDF) Klaus Schmidt Gobekli Tepe | Fatih Gumus – Academia.edu “Gobekli Tepe seems to have been a regional center where communities met to engage in complex rites.”

Yes, complex rites and rituals that contain elements of some forms of early religions, animism, totemism, shamanism. they took place under the umbrella of a common unitary cult specific to the area, which today we would call religion, rituals led and coordinated by shamans.

From https://www.tellerreport.com › life Göbekli Tepe: Festivals and orgies paved the way for civilization … “By erecting monumental statues of their unknown gods, they also laid the foundation for social contact over greater distances. As a reward and incentive for this work, which devoured considerable resources, there were “meals”, which at times probably degenerated into large feasts or possibly even orgies.Since these festivals also served for representation and the exchange of experiences, they also contributed to the progress of civilization.”

See also, https://www.researchgate.net › 2357…(PDF) The role of cult and feasting in the emergence of Neolithic …

My research has led me to repeatedly and even obsessively encounter some elements and ideas that led me to draw some preliminary conclusions:

• The inhabitants of the area adjacent to Gobekli Tepe went through periods of time and moments of crisis and famine in which living and even survival were extremely difficult, so they went through major crises. Survival was on the verge of extinction, so a matter of life and death. This is how I explain the burial moments of the monuments.

• Hunting even if the action is perfectly organized, but also hunting leads to a random result. Even if there are many herds, hunters do not act in large groups. So sometimes gathering several is both necessary and explainable.

The principle, idea, or element that I met repeatedly, returning almost obsessively and present was LIFE. Because it was always present in the concerns and daily existence.

• Then I understood that those hunter-gatherers realized that survival necessarily requires organization, cooperation and unity. That is, quite early there was an understanding of the need and obligation of collaboration. As a consequence they acquired the consciousness of a distinct, cohesive and unitary community.

  • • Regardless of their cosmological conception, the inhabitants of Gobekli Tepe did not make complex philosophies. They probably did not invent or expect the help of any deity-type entity. They did not resort to an intermediary who directly questioned and implored life or the spirit of life. They tried to understand to tame and approach the nature with which they had direct contact. Even if intermediate by shamans. Nature was manifest through spirits.                    
  • • I hypothesize that the T-pillars and the T-symbol continuously represented from Gobekli Tepe (9,000 I.E.N.) until after 5,500 years to the Sumerians (3,500 I.E.N.) the being, the will to live, LIFE in general.
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From http://www.academia.edu › The_ori…(PDF) The origin of Sumerian tongue | Sumerian Language …Sumerian me [BEING] (750x: ED IIIb, Old Akkadian, Lagash II, Old Babylonian) wr. me “Being, divine properties enabling cosmic activity; office; .

So in the beginning, (9,600 I.E.N.) there was only the spirit of life that had the dwelling in the T-shaped pillars. In this way the pillar, the stone did not have a soul, but had a spiritual charge, the spirit.

From https://www.researchgate.net › 2700&#8230; (PDF) Göbekli Tepe – The Stone Age Sanctuaries. New results of … << Klaus Schmidt: “The question of who is being represented by the highly styliside T shaped pillars remains open, as we can not say with certitude if concepts of gods existed at this time.So the general function of enclosures remains mysterious, but it is clear that the pillar statues in the centre of these enclosures represented very powerful beings.If gods existed in the minds of Early Neolithic people, there is an overwhelming probability that the T-shape is the first known monumental depiction of gods”>>

I understood that the monuments represent a symbol, landmark and homage to life. Many times the inhabitants went through periods of major crises. In conditions of maximum adversity for the development of life, they restricted their activity and put the monuments in conservation. Then, miraculously, they seemed to recover. With optimism, new forces and hopes continued their existence. They rebuilt the symbols of life and found new resources of hope and faith. The T-shaped pillars have the function of totemic pillars that represent the community, its unity, its solidarity. But also its continuity and strength.

Note. 1. Fertility is the creation and perpetuation of life, so a fertility celebration is somehow one of life. 2. Death is the continuation of the life cycle on another plane. Life and death are closely linked in a natural cycle. 3. At Gobekli Tepe (which is part of Upper Mesopotamia), we have some mounds, it looks artificial and also a temple. In Sumerian literature there is talk of Ekur, the “mountain temple,” and Duku, the “holy mound.”

Additional documentation / A d d i t i o n a l d o c u m e n t a t i o n

From https://www.sumerian.org › prot-sum  The Proto-Sumerian Language Invention Process John Halloran << “Diakonoff wrote in 1983, “I shall define as ‘archaic’ any language which, on the lexical level, has no or only poorly developed means of expressing abstract ideas, and on the grammatical level, is based on the opposition ‘action vs. state’.” “In an archaic language there are no adequate means, either lexical or grammatical, to express such abstract ideas as ‘time’, ‘space’, ‘subject’, ‘object’, ’cause’, ‘beauty’, ‘liberty’, ‘invention’, ‘multiplication’, ‘division’ and many others, some of which appear to us elemental, as, e.g., the distinction between ‘darkness’, ‘calamity’, ‘illness’, and ‘pain’, etc., or between ‘good’, ‘enjoyable’, ‘kind’, ‘happy’, ‘useful’, ‘lucky’, etc. However, human thought is impossible without inductive thinking, i.e., thought which proceeds from particular facts to a generalization.” “The development of lexical and grammatical means to express general ideas opens the way, on the one hand, for scientific thought, which has as its goal a non-emotional cognition of objects, and on the other, for specifically artistic thought, whose goal is the emotional cognition of man’s attitude toward and relation to objects.” Diakonoff continues, “Sumerian is an archaic language in which abstract ideas were in the making: this is why both Sumerian language and Sumerian mythology are so interesting. It has no means to express a subject-object relation, and very inadequate means to express the idea of time etc.” [From a 1983 paper which, “will discuss the Sumerian numerals from the point of view of their place on the road of development of abstract thinking,” >>

From Neolithic House Party – Eastern Turkey Tours https://www.easternturkeytour.org › neolithic-house-party <<So, our stone turtle dancers from Nevali Çori, a shamanistic dance in altered states of consciousness with mystical turtle beings in a celebration of life and death, or just dinner? >>

See https://www.britannica.com › topic Feast – The significance of seasonal renewal in ancient Mesopotamia … ================= If my opinion that the T-pillars represent the essence and the spirit of life is somewhat singular, instead the vision on the role and purpose of the whole ritual complex, namely that it is a tribute and memorial to life is shared by others:

From GOBEKLITEPE IN TURKEY: THE WORLD’S … – Nikola Benin https://www.turkeyhomes.com › post Gobeklitepe In Turkey: The World’s First Temple – from blog – Turkey … 24 ian. 2019 — <<Theories arose that hunters held food feasts here, as a celebration of life, since finding food was their primary concern >>

From https://tr.pinterest.com › pin 2014/03/09 – YENİ: Göbekli Tepe Haber | Alman Arkeoloji – Pinterest 2014.03.09 – NEW:Göbekli Tepe Newsletter | Deutsches Archäologisches . … <<For them, a funeral is a great celebration of life, much like a ..>>

From Göbekli Tepe: Neolithic Gathering and Feasting at the Beginning of Food Production By Jens Notroff & Oliver Dietrich https://www.asor.org/anetoday/2017/07/gobekli-tepe/ << Large communal tasks executed as collective work events, reflected in the apparently continuous construction activity at Göbekli Tepe, provided a unifying reason for people to come together. Additionally ethnographic studies provide more examples demonstrating that work forces necessary for such collaborative projects can be gathered with the prospect of lavish feasts. That this may have been the case at Göbekli Tepe is further corroborated by a closer look at the massive amount of filling material of the enclosures, which consists of limestone rubble, flint artefacts, fragments of stone vessels, other ground stone tools, and in particular an impressively large numbers of animal bones – above all gazelle and aurochs. These remains hint at the consumption of enormous amounts of meat, most likely during feasts framing these large-scale meetings and communal activities, including monument construction. Repetitive feasting at Göbekli Tepe may have played an essential role not only in creating and strengthening social bonds among the individuals and groups meeting there, but must also have stressed the economic potential of these hunter-gatherers to repeatedly feed such large crowds. In response to this pressure, new food resources and processing techniques may have been explored, subsequently paving the way for a complete change in subsistence strategy. In this scenario, the early appearance of monumental religious architecture motivating work feasts to draw as many hands as possible for the execution of complex, collective tasks is changing our understanding of one of the key moments in human history: the emergence of agriculture and animal husbandry – and the onset of food production and the Neolithic way of live.>>

From What is a Celebration of Life Service? | Lassahn Funeral Homeshttps://www.lassahnfuneralhomes.com › celebration-of-…

Feasting, Social Complexity, and the Emergence of the Early Neolithic of Upper Mesopotamia: A View from Göbekli Tepe “The present contribution explores the possible role of feasting in the emergence of social complexity , hierarchical societies and the shift to the Neolithic way of life in Upper Mesopotamia ….Vast evidence for feasting at the site seems to hint at work feasts to accomplish the common, religiously motivated task of constructing these enclosures.” From https://books.google.ro › booksAnthropomorphic Images in Rock Art Paintings and Rock CarvingsTerence Meaden, Herman Bender — 2020 · Social Science “Gobekli Tepe, Enclosure C, Pillar 12 with her ribs and backbone conspicuously sticking out, which speaks of extreme hunger and starvation

Let’s not forget: an interesting aspect, unnoticed by someone else until now. After sacred precincts were burried, after some time were rebuilt, but they kept the shape of the pillars unchanged, namely that in T. Does this fact show that it was an extremely strong and important symbol that signified something, or maybe it was just the mark, the sign by which that civilization and population identified? The initial meaning may become blurred over time. I have to draw a parallel with the symbol of the cross used for 2,000 years. Here we have 2,500 years (9,600-7,000 B.C.) During the 2,500 years they have not changed shape by a millimeter! Above you have my opinion why.

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