Archive for May, 2021

Gobekli tepe’s star gate=pole star ?

May 13, 2021

From › tag › history-of-the-zodiac history of the zodiac | Echoes in the Mist

  1. <<Collins points out what seem to be a number of celestial correspondences between the stone pillars and the stars, and he mentions that the Sabaeans, who were star worshippers living in the city of Harran, right near Gobekli Tepe, are known to have held an annual celebration, the Mystery of the North, during which they revered the northern direction as the source of life. These people, living around 8,000 BC were most likely the direct descendants of the people of Gobekli Tepe, who may have passed on to them their worship of the direction North.>>

From <<The City of Harran

… The Bronze Age city at Harran almost certainly superseded a much earlier Neolithic settlement located on the same site. Excavations since 2005 at a nearby mound named Tell Idris (the Hill of Idris, the Arab name for both the Greek god Hermes and the patriarch Enoch) have revealed a series of occupational layers going back to the Neolithic age, c. 8000-6000 BC (Yardimci, 2008, 362-364). These are overlaid by occupational levels belonging to the Halaf culture, c. 6000-5000 BC, and the Ubaid culture, c. 5000-4100 BC, showing a continuous occupation of nearly 4,000 years. Tell Idris was the first place inhabited in the Harran district. Yet following its abandonment, the population shifted their attentions to Harran itself, which now became the main occupation site, even though it had existed in its own right since the Halaf period.2

Sabaean Star-worshippers

It is extremely possible that aspects of the beliefs and practices expressed by the Göbekli builders persisted in the region and eventually found their way into the religion of the Harranites, who from the ninth century onwards were known as Sabaeans, from the Arabic saba’a, meaning “to change, to come out, to convert, to return”. Various medieval Arab writers visited Harran and wrote about the strange and highly exotic religion of the Sabaean star-worshippers, which revolved around a personification of the sun, moon and planets as angels or spirit intelligences. Their chosen qibla, or direction of prayer, was said to have been the north,3 the direction of the Pole Star, and every year the “Mystery of the North” was celebrated with a grand festival. The Harranites’ obsession with the north as the direction of the Primal Cause was something inherited by their latter day descendants the Mandaeans, who, like the Harranites, are referred to as both Sabaeans and star-worshippers. ….The Mandaeans practice a complex blend of Magian angelology, Gnostic Christianity, and Babylonian astrology involving the seven planets and the twelve signs of the zodiac. Like their forerunners the Harranites, the Mandaeans venerate the Pole Star, which they see as a visible manifestation of the Supreme Being, as well as the access point to the abode of the righteous, and the destination of the pious in death. Offerings are made to the north, while the dead are buried with their feet in the north and their heads in the south, so “that the north star (i.e. the Pole Star) may be in front of the eyes”, since the north is “the abode of Avather (the angel of the scales, judge of the dead and guardian of paradise) and there, too, is Olmi-Danhuro (paradise)”. That a link existed between the Harranites’ and Mandaeans’ veneration of the Pole Star and the beliefs and practices associated with the sanctuaries at Göbekli Tepe is tantalizing. This seems especially so in the knowledge that other religious groups that once thrived in the region also saw the north as the principal direction of prayer. They include the angel-worshipping Yezidi, who once thrived in SE Turkey, and the Shi’ite sect known as the Isma’ili Brethren of Purity (Ikhwan al-Safa’), whose centre was at Bosra in Syria (Collins, 2006). Yet can we take the matter further?

Festival of the Pole Star

The answer is yes, for I have come across a remarkable account of a new year festival conducted by the Mandaeans on the banks of the Euphrates river in the late nineteenth century that throws considerable new light on the subject. It highlights the sect’s absolute veneration of the Pole Star, which is described as “Olma d’nhoora, ‘the world of light’, Dayan-samê, ‘The Judge-of-heaven'”, and also as the “primitive sun of the Star-worshippers’ theogony, the paradise of the elect, and the abode of the pious hereafter’. Significantly, the account-published in the London Standard of 19th October, 1894 under the headline “A Prayer Meeting of the Star Worshippers”, and later included in Robert Brown’s Researches into the Origin of the Primitive Constellations of the Greeks, Phoenicians and Babylonians (Brown, 1900, 177-179)-provides a vivid picture of the construction and use of a cult hut called the “Mishkna”, referred to also as the bit manda or bit mashkna. This, as we shall see, bears striking similarities to the layout of early Neolithic cult buildings, including those at Göbekli Tepe and Çayönü, located around 160km (100 miles) north-northeast of Harran.

The location of the new year festival is given as Sook-es-Shookh (modern Suq al-Shuyukh), a small township near the city of Basra in what is today southern Iraq. The date is presumably 1894, with the time of year being “late September”. I will let the narrator take up the story (with some paraphrasing from Robert Brown):‘The stars are beginning to twinkle overhead, but there is still sufficient light to note the strange white-robed figures moving stealthily about in the semi-gloom down by the river side … “Their fathers were burned,” cries our Persian guide in disgust . . . thus delicately hinting that they are not followers of Islam; and a Jew who accompanies our party, on his way to the tomb of Ezekiel, spits upon the ground, and exclaims in pure Hebrew, Obde kokhabim umazaloth’ [‘Servants of the stars and Signs of the Zodiac’].

When we first meet them the white-robed Mandaeans are in the process of completing the Mishkna, or ‘tabernacle’, which will play a crucial role in the upcoming “grand annual festival”:An oblong space is marked out, about 16 feet long and 12 feet broad by stouter reeds, which are driven firmly into the ground close together, and then tied with strong cord. To these the squares of woven reeds and wattles are securely attached forming the outer containing walls of the tabernacle. The side walls run from north to south, and are not more than 7 feet high. Two windows, or rather openings for windows, are left east and west, and space for a door is made on the southern side, so that the priest when entering the edifice has the North Star, the great object of their adoration, immediately facing him. An altar of beaten earth is raised in the centre of the reed-encircled enclosure, and the interstices of the walls well daubed with clay and soft earth, which speedily hardens. Although not made clear, the Mishkna’s two longest sides are aligned east-west (see Figs. 1, 2, 3 & 5). The windows are placed in the two narrow walls, aligned north-south. White curtains are placed over the windows, although the structure itself remains open to the sky. The Mishkna’s entrance is created midway along the southern wall, exactly like the Pre-Pottery Neolithic cult buildings. Indeed, the shape, layout and orientation of the Mishkna greatly resembles the cult buildings at Çayönü, two of which (the Terrazzo Building and Flagstone Building) also have wider east-west aligned walls with south-facing doorways (see Fig. 4). As we shall see, the express purpose of the Mishkna’s southerly placed entrance is in order for the Ganzivro, the spiritual head of the sect, to fix his gaze on the Pole Star as he enters the tabernacle. Two smaller cubicles, just big enough to hold a single person, are then constructed of reeds immediately beyond the cult hut’s south wall. One cubicle is reserved for the use of the Ganzivro, and once completed no one other than him is allowed to even touch its walls. A circular baptismal pool is also created close to the southern entrance. This is filled with water channeled directly from the river (see Fig. 1). Mandaeans arriving for the festival use the second cubicle to disrobe before plunging themselves into the baptismal pool, an act presided over by a tarmido priest who pronounces a blessing as the immersion takes place. Thereafter each person covers themselves in clean white garments, which reach almost to the ground.
As the night progresses around twenty rows of white-robed figures, all ranked in an orderly array, gather on the riverside. They sit patiently facing the Mishkna awaiting the arrival of the priests who will conduct the much anticipated ceremony. Two guards stand by the entrance:… (they) keep their eyes fixed upon the pointers of the Great Bear. As soon as these attain the position indicating midnight.’ a signal is given, and a procession of priests, including … the Ganzivro moves to the Mishkna. One ‘deacon’ ‘holds aloft the large wooden tau-cross.’ A second bears ‘the sacred scriptures of the Star-worshippers.’ A third ‘carries two live pigeons in a cage,’ and a fourth has ‘a measure of barley and of sesame seeds.’ So not only does the Pole Star feature in the ceremony, but the stars making up the Big Dipper or Plough in the constellation of Ursa Major, the Great Bear, are watched in order to mark the moment of midnight. In many ancient cultures, the seven main stars of Ursa Major were seen as the turning mechanism of the heavens, as well as time-keeping devices for those engaged in nocturnal activities.
Returning to the account of the Mandaean new year festival, we read that:The ecclesiastics file into the Mishkna, and stand ‘to right and left, leaving the Ganzivro standing alone in the centre, in front of the earthen altar facing the North Star, Polaris. The sacred book Sidra Rabba is laid upon the altar folded back where the liturgy of the living is divided from the ritual of the dead. The high priest takes a live pigeon, ‘extends his hands towards the Polar Star, upon which he fixes his eyes, and lets the bird fly, calling aloud, “In the name of the living one, blessed be the primitive light, the ancient light, the Divinity self-created.”‘ Here the Ganzivro approaches the Mishkna’s earthen altar after entering the structure from the south. Once again this brings to mind the layout of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic structures of southeast Turkey, whose own southerly placed entrances perhaps played a similar role, enabling the priest or shaman to face an object of veneration in the northern night sky. The centrally positioned altar in the Mishkna takes the place of the twin central pillars seen in the principal enclosures at Göbekli Tepe, and the twin standing stones erected side-by-side at the centre of two of the cult buildings at Çayönü (the Flagstone Building and Skull Building). The Mishkna has no roof and remains open to the sky in order for the Ganzivro to gaze upon the Pole Star. Yet whether or not the early Neolithic sanctuaries at places like Göbekli Tepe and Çayönü possessed roofs remains a matter of debate. From the marks, cuts and grooves on the top of certain pillars in Göbekli’s Enclosure C (See Fig. 6) this does seem likely, although perhaps a roof was used either partially or at certain times of the year.

Soul Birds and Excarnation ….

Excarnation is known to have been important to early Neolithic communities in central and eastern Anatolia, and is even depicted on the walls at Çatal Höyük, the 9,000-year-old Neolithic city on the Konya plain in southern central Turkey. In this manner, the vulture, and thus the bird in general, became the primary symbol of the soul’s journey to the spirit world. In the knowledge that the Mandaeans themselves once exposed their dead to carrion birds (Drower, 1937, 184-5, 200), could the pigeon or dove have replaced more unsightly birds such as the vulture and raven as symbols of the soul’s flight into the next world? Continuing the account, we read next that:The worshippers without, on hearing these words, ‘rise and prostrate themselves upon the ground towards the North Star, on which they have silently been gazing.’ ‘The Ganzivro, who has made a complete renunciation of the world, and is regarded as one dead and in the realms of the blessed.’ after the celebration of a kind of communion in which small cakes, sprinkled with the blood of the second pigeon are partaken of, recites a further service, ‘ever directing his prayers towards the North Star, on which the gaze of the worshippers outside continues fixed throughout the whole of the ceremonial observances.’>>

From <<Tonight, if you have a dark sky, you’ll be able to pick out the constellation Draco the Dragon winding around the North Star, Polaris. The image at the top of this post shows Draco as depicted in an old star atlas by Johannes Hevelius in 1690. See the circle? That circle indicates the changing position of the north celestial pole over a cycle of 26,000 years.

Circle around north, with locations marked for 0 B.C., 9000 B.C., 2000 A.D., and 8000 A.D.
The 26,000-year precession cycle causes the north celestial pole to move counter-clockwise relative to the backdrop stars. Whichever star is closest to the north celestial pole is the Pole Star. Thuban reigned as the North Star some 5,000 years ago.

From Tau Herculis <<Tau Herculis is located within 1° of the precessional path traced across the celestial sphere by the Earth’s North pole.

Tau Herculis - Wikipedia

It could have served the northern pole star around the year 7400 BCE, a phenomenon which is expected to reoccur in the year 18,400 due to precession.

Small white disks representing the northern stars on a black background, overlaid by a circle showing the position of the north pole over time I was stuck on Vega, because I can find references to it being the Pole Star between 13,000 BC and 11,000 BC.

Pole Star - Help! | Physics Forums

What symbol for divinity is expected, or express better divinity sphere ?

May 11, 2021

THE DIVINITY ICON IS NOT DIVINITY ITSELF ! It is only a reminder, a mnemonic sign. Exemple, nowday christian cross not represent god, it is only a sacred sign. We know our nowdays divinities wich must be antropomorphic, and expect the same for the civilisations of the past. But things not always worked so. Hunter-gatherers had no a very high complex and stratified society, to need an human-like ruller or superviser. They not needed a divinity wich regulate social life as much as divinities wich regulate natural enviroment.Their life passed largely in nature and depended on nature elements. They rely on rather on mountain, wood an animal spirits.

Largely and far away, the sign for divinity is a matter of convention. In greatest measure, all processus happens in our minds. Much important is what we feel and think than what is the real picture or the sharp reality, because the spiritual reality is at human beeings one level above, “1-st degree reality”. Divinity is in fact cosmic powers and order. Image from Magura cave, Bulgaria (~10.000-8.000 B.C. ?)

Tau cross is not but a cross, one even much simplified. If try to simplify further cannot, cause obtei an turn, turning (L-shape). As divinity is allways right, the cross sign has vertical lane and right angles. Pillars are Orthostates – Wikipedia › wiki › Orthostates , upright stones. Thousend years lasting and directed toward sky. If horizontal part of + or T is the earth or sky, no matter, cause we have the vertikal line wich realise the connection. Tau shape/icon is related to: – Bucrania – human torso/body – hammer, ! all symbols of power !


From <<me, mì; gtildee: n., function, office, responsibility; ideal norm; the phenomenal area of a deity’s power; divine decree, oracle; cult. ; v., to be; the Sumerian copula; to say, tell. ; poss. suffix, our. ; me3,6,7,9: battle. >>

Sumerian me, has also many other meanings :” ritual, to be, beeing, will to live..”


<< One of the highly disputed symbols is the H-like symbol (and also “( H )” symbol) which is seen carved on  Enclosure D pillars. Some say this symbol emblematizes the Orion constellation. I think this is not true. Because, besides the “H “symbol, there is an “I-like” symbol, which can define as slanted “H”. Both of them are not related to Orion. To provide some intriguing and factual meanings based on cultural and archaeological datas: “H” symbol is not only a monolith symbol itself. It consists of two parts, which we can define as Tau. We encounter the same “H” symbol in Utah petroglyphs which are made by Anasazis. Indeed, we see the complete “( H )” symbol. Here the “H” symbol is not alone. On both sides there are other symbols.>>

See chinese characters “above” and “down”:

From The Fundamental Principles of Old and New World Civilizations › books Zelia Nuttall

<<The preceding data, which could be amplified, seem to show that the natives associated the tau-shape not merely with the idea of the Male and Female principles, but also with the Above and the Below, or Heaven (air and water) and Earth (earth and fire). ….. As I shall have occasion to demonstrate further on, the double tau signifies the Above and the Below and their union forming an integral whole. …. I venture to point out how obviously Thor’s hammer symbolizes the union of the Above and Below, the heaven represented by the horizontal line resting on the perpendicular support, symbolizing the sacred pole, column, mountain and tree intimately associated with Polaris, the world axis.>>

Now see at Göbekli Tepe, double tau:

Cosmic Power of the Shaman and Symbols at Göbekli Tepe - Part II | Ancient  Origins

Circassian (adyghe) “god Tha cross”:

In a quite restraint area, (allmost the same that of haplogroup G2a) were used in the course of the history at least 3 “T” signs: Gobekli, Caucasus and Sumeria.


I searched and knocked the sumerian “me” sign all-around in order to find the mistery around it, and the resul was that represented esence of “LIFE“. Very interesting, the egyptian sign for life, “ankh” is very close, beeeng an T-sign and wich has attached an circle or drop-shape.

Originea Gherga: 44. Gherga în N Africii

So the meaning of the sign Ankh, really is “ETERNAL LIFE”, not simply life.

Ankh – Wikipedia › wiki › Ankh The ankh or key of life is an ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic symbol that was most commonly … For this reason, the gods were often depicted in tombs giving ankh signs to humans, usually the pharaoh


Now see a little surprise: From Old European culture Breath <<Now have a look at this: Ancient Greek: ζάω (záō) – I live. This word is actually derived from Linear B “za” symbol which is in the shape of the Egyptian ANKH which means “life”.

oldeuropeanculture בטוויטר: "And it looks like Egyptian Ankh could have  come from Sumerian An+Ki = Sky+Earth = Sky Father+Earth Mother = Life.  From:…"

This symbol is traditionally transliterated as “za”, but some people suggest that the sign should be transliterated as “ka”.This is very interesting as it shows the antiquity of the “z” root for the word for life. .. So we could say that “breathing”, or “breath” is at the root of life.But I believe that we have even more proof that the “ži”, “dji” root is indeed the original root for the above cluster of words meaning life, living. Let me ask you this question: What does it mean to be alive? Some would say that to be alive means to have a soul still inhabiting your body. Interestingly, Hittite word “zi” meant “soul, spirit, seat of life, person“…At the same time in Sumerian language we find this word: “zi” (ži?) – breathing, breath (of life), life, throat, soul…>> › HELLE… (PDF) HELLENIC ORIGIN OF EUROPE: Formation of the … The hieroglyphic sign No 18 = Egypt. ankh ‘life, to live’ = Lin. A, B za < Greek ζάω ‘to live’ < Indo – << ζά? ; Transliteration: za Principal Part: ζά Etym.: aeolic for διά>> << ζάω  (záō): ” I live”>> › books Schrevelius’ Greek Lexicon translated into English … Third … Cornelis Schrevel — 1841 <<Zñlos , envy ; ZA ‘ , , to live , flourish , revive >> Dia (Ancient Greek: Δία or Δῖα, “heavenly”, “divine

Genetica populatiei Göbekli Tepe, 9.600 I.E.N.

May 7, 2021

Genetica relevă faptul că populația neolitică Göbekli Tepe a avut originile cele mai indepartate între Levant (civilizația natufiană?) Și Caucaz (vezi haplogrupul G-M201). Nordul Mesopotamiei și Caucazul a fost originea oamenilor din Anatolia de Sud-Est (Sanliurfa-Göbekli Tepe). (a se vedea haplogrupul G2a) Au dat viață culturilor agricole neolitice centrale anatoliene. Așa cum în zilele noastre se poate observa că în Caucaz nu există religie și zei ca în societățile complexe stratificate dezvoltate, ci un singur „mod Habza” – înțelegere, de un tip mult apropiat naturii decât viața societății interioare. Din Neopaganismul caucazian << importanta strămoșilor, care au capacitatea de a observa și evalua treburile descendenților lor. …… Sufletele strămoșilor necesită comemorare: se organizează sărbători funerare și se practică și se distribuie preparatele de sacrificiu sau de masă memorială (zheryme) pentru amintirea sufletelor moarte. Teologia habzistă este monistă, cu cea mai mare proeminența acordată zeului Tha … „spiritul său este împrăștiat în tot spațiul”. … Lumea manifestată material se află într-o perpetuă schimbare, dar în același timp există o bază care rămâne mereu nezdruncinată. Acesta este principiul originar al lumii și al Legii sale. Adepții acestei viziuni asupra lumii, uneori și islamizați, se găsesc în Turcia modernă. Credințele Xabze și credințele sufismo-islamice sunt văzute ca filozofii complementare de către circasieni. Zeii și zeițele sunt împărțite în două grupuri fundamental diferite:

Zei fără imagine, cosmogonii (Tha, Uashkhue, Psetha, Schyble).
Zei antropomorfi (umanoizi) (Mezytha, Tlepsh, Thagaledj etc.). >>
De la Adyghe / Circassian Habzehttps: //

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Crucea-ciocan adighe reprezentand zeul Tha
Habzist wheel.png
Roata Habze reprezentand articularea Universului din centru, Tha
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Ceva asemanator a fost în 9.600 î.Hr. acolo, la Gobekli Tepe: nu existau zei propriu-zis, așa cum suntem obișnuiți să vedem, ci mai degrabă entități animiste /demoni și animale totem care erau apropiate atat de animalele sălbatice cat și de modul de viață al vanator-culegatorilor.Așadar, aș putea emite: IPOTEZA CONTINUITATII GEOGRAFICE, GENETICE ȘI CULTURAL-RELIGIOASE ÎN MESOPOTAMIA DE NORD (ANATOLIA DE SUD-EST ȘI CAUCAZ). UNELE TRĂSĂTURI COMUNE CAUCAZULUI-GOBEKLI (partial Sumerului) sunt: – Originea religiei animiste (un suflet locuia în fiecare obiect, animat sau neînsuflețit, funcționând ca forță motrice și gardian >> stâlpi T, vii! Fantome, demoni și zeități locuiau aproape toate obiectele!) Totemism (prezent la Gobekli și Caucaz) – Zei fără imagine (duhuri,demoni) – pictograma T (Tau) = pictograma Zeului Tha Semnul sumerian T = “ME” = “puterile divine, esența, ritul, ființa, voința de a trăi etc. etc” – Același fond genetic (haplogrupul G2a) – Spițele roții Habze <12> Pilonii circulari Gobekli Tepe ==================================== Din From Origin & Evolution of a Family :The Y-DNA Story

<< În următorii 20-30.000 de ani, descendenții haplogrupului haplogrupului F au apărut în Orientul Apropiat, Semiluna Fertilă a istoriei, apoi s-au extins pentru a popula globul. Acestea includ toți membrii Haplogroups G până la T, sau 90% din populația lumii. Originea Haplogroup G .. haplogroup G, este definită de o mutație la locusului M201 pe cromozom și este un tip răspândit, dar relativ neobișnuit. Membrii haplogrupului împărtășesc un strămoș comun care a dezvoltat o mutație din haplogrupul F anterior acum aproximativ 45.000 de ani. Paleoliticul superior, perioada de acum 50.000 până la 10.000 de ani a fost numită Epoca de piatră târzie sau Paleoliticul Superior și este înaintea descoperirii agriculturii. În această perioadă, antropoliștii cred că omenirea a început să demonstreze mai întâi abilitatea de a folosi gândirea simbolică complexă și de a exprima creativitatea culturală, văzută în picturile rupestre și sculptarea figurilor voluptuoase de fertilitate. Exact acolo unde în Orientul Mijlociu ar fi putut să apară inițial haplogrupul G a fost dezbătut pe scară largă și acerbă. Un grup susține că a fost undeva în regiunea munților Caucaz. Aceasta este zona cu cea mai mare concentrație de haplotipuri G. astăzi. Haplogroup G este cel mai frecvent în Osetia de Nord și, în mod specific, în orașul Digora, cu o frecvență medie de 74%. 29% dintre popoarele kabardine și balcanice din nord-vestul Caucazului sunt de tip G, iar Azerbaidjanul și Armenia au, de asemenea, concentrații mari de haplogrup.

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Cealaltă tabără susține că este o greșeală să ia această concentrație de probe moderne de haplogrup G ca dovadă a originii. Ei susțin că haplogrupul a apărut sau, cel puțin, a izbucnit populația sa, în Levantul din Siria modernă, Libanul și Israelul.”Observați că, deși G-M201 atinge o frecvență ridicată (de aproximativ 50%) numai în unele zone din Caucazul de Vest și Central, varianța G pentru 8 (?!) STR este cea mai mare în Levantul de Sud.” – de pe pagina web Facebook G-M201.

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Deci, pe scurt, originea haplogrupului G a fost în nord sau sud sau între ele. . . Până în ultimii ani, astfel de teorii s-au bazat pe utilizarea ADN-ului extras de la subiecții moderni și pe presupuneri bazate pe densitățile actuale ale populației. De atunci au fost dezvoltate noi tehnici care permit utilizarea ADN-ului din vechile locuri de înmormântare și acestea arată o corelație redusă cu tiparele actuale de dispersie. Unul dintre principalii cercetători din domeniul ADN a spus: „… patria acestui haplogrup [G] a fost estimată a fi undeva în apropiere de estul Anatoliei, Armenia sau vestul Iranului, singurele zone caracterizate prin co-prezența ramurilor bazale profunde, precum și apariția sub-haplogrupului ridicat diversitate.” Deci, poate putem fi de acord să spunem că locusul apariției haplogrupului G a fost undeva în Semiluna Fertilă din Orientul Mijlociu, dar cel mai probabil la vârful său extrem de nord, în sud-estul Turciei sau în Anatolia. …. ….. Haplogroup G a avut un început lent, evoluând izolat de zeci de mii de ani, cu o populație mică. O populație mai mică a însemnat mai puține mutații totale și un grup mai omogen. …. ….. Primii noștri strămoși de tip G ar fi fost totuși vânătorii-culegători ai epocii de piatră, organizați în grupuri mici de oameni semi-nomazi care trăiesc în afara țării. Cercetătorii genetici se referă la aceștia ca vânători-culegători anatolieni (AHG). Acest grup alcătuiește unul dintre cele trei tipuri ancestrale care populează Europa. Ceilalți erau vânătorii de vânătoare occidentali (WHG) care au intrat în Europa în timpul paleoliticului și vechilor nord-eurasiatici (ANE) care au intrat la începutul epocii bronzului. Dispersarea Haplogroup G Clada părinte de tip G, G-M201, s-a ramificat în cele din urmă în tipurile G1 și G2 acum aproximativ 23.000 de ani. Populația care deține mutația G1 va migra spre est, din Semiluna Fertilă, în Iran, trecând peste munții Zagros. Mai târziu, de asemenea, s-au mutat la nord în Kazahstan și mai la est în vestul Indiei. Haplogroup G2, o mutație la P287 [L89], s-ar deplasa spre vest în Anatolia și Cipru, iar spre nord-est în Munții Caucaz. După cum veți citi, mai jos, strămoșii noștri făceau parte din grupul care s-a mutat spre vest. Cu toate acestea, urmașii acestor două ramuri principale vor migra și niciuna dintre aceste mișcări nu va începe până când nu s-a făcut cea mai mare invenție din istoria omului, cea a agriculturii.Această inspirație a dat naștere epocii neolitice sau a epocii noii pietre, dar nu va începe până nu vor mai trece încă 10.000 de ani.

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Fermierii timpurii și răspândirea neolitică a Haplogroup G2a Am spus deja că haplogrupul nostru a apărut probabil la capătul nordic al Semilunii Ferile. Asta sună ca izvoarele râurilor Eufrat și Tigru de pe sau în apropierea platoului armean din estul Anatoliei. Orașul antic Cayonu Tepesi, datează înainte de 10.000 î.Hr., este situat acolo; vezi harta din stânga. Se crede că oamenii care locuiesc în Cayonu sunt primii fermieri din Anatolia. Din câte știu, nu a fost recuperat ADN utilizabil de pe acest site.

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Această sursă singulară este fermierii G2a din Anatolia. Așezările neolitice identificate în Anatolia includ Catalhoyuk, Cayonu Tepesi, Nevali Cori, Asikli hoyuk, Boncuklu hoyuk, Hacilar, Gobekli Tepe, Norsuntepe, Kosk și Mersin. Catalhoyuk, în centrul Turciei, este considerat cel mai avansat dintre acestea, iar Cayonu Tepesi în est, la capătul nordic al Semilunei Fertile, cel mai vechi. Hacilar, în vestul Turciei, a urmat Cayonu Tepesi și a fost datat la 7.040 î.Hr. – bazat pe Wikipedia. Acești fermieri anatolieni au fost descendenții vânătorilor-culegători de anatolani (AHG) menționați anterior. …… Cine au fost strămoșii acestor fermieri anatolieni? „Când a venit să analizeze efectiv defalcarea ancestrală a anatolienilor, Lazaridis și colab. (2016) au venit cu un model foarte solid în care anatolienii erau un amestec de linii legate de Ganj Dareh [munții Zagros din Iran], neoliticul Levantului și WHG [Western Hunter Gatherer], cu proporții de amestec de 0,387, 0,339 și respectiv 0,274. ” – din „Primii fermieri, cu accent pe Anatolia” la Deci, în timp ce populația de fermieri a fost puțin amestecată la capetele extreme de est și de vest ale Semilunii Fertile, cele din nordul său, care și-au găsit mai târziu drumul în Anatolia, au fost un amestec atât de vânători-culegători locali. Comerțul a fost probabil motorul acestui act sexual.

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…. În perioada neolitică strămoșii noștri, haplogrupul G2a, au intrat în Europa din Anatolia, trecând prin Grecia și Balcani în Europa centrală. Au găsit o zonă rurală foarte ușor așezată.

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================= Am gasit in Haplogroup G2a (in Y-DNA) <<Distributia haplogrupului G in Europa, Africa de Nord si Orientul Apropiat

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ORIGINEA La sfârșitul anului 2016, au existat 303 mutații (SNP) care definesc haplogrupul G, confirmând că această descendență paternă a experimentat un blocaj sever înainte de a se împărți în haplogrupurile G1 și G2. G1 s-ar fi putut naște în jurul Iranului modern la începutul Ultimului Maxim Glacial (LGM), cu aproximativ 26.000 de ani în urmă. G2 s-ar fi dezvoltat cam în aceeași perioadă în Asia de Vest. În acea perioadă, oamenii ar fi fost toți vânători-culegători și, în majoritatea cazurilor, trăiau în triburi mici nomade sau semi-nomade. Membrii haplogrupului G2 par să fi fost strâns legați de dezvoltarea agriculturii timpurii în partea Semilună Fertilă, începând cu 11.500 de ani înainte de prezent. Ramura G2a s-a extins în Anatolia, Caucaz și Europa, în timp ce G2b s-a difuzat din Iran de-a lungul Semilunei Fertile și din est spre Pakistan. Acum se găsește mai ales în rândul libanezilor și evreilor, dar și la o frecvență redusă în peninsula arabă, Siria, Irak, Iran, Afganistan și Pakistan. …… …. Cea mai mare diversitate genetică din cadrul haplogrupului G se găsește în partea de nord a Semilunii Fertile, între Levant și Caucaz, care este un bun indicator al regiunii sale de origine. Istoria fermierilor neolitici haplogrup G2a și a păstorilor de munte Testarea rămășițelor neolitice în diferite părți ale Europei a confirmat că haplogrupul G2a a fost descendența dominantă a fermierilor și păstorilor neolitici care au migrat din Anatolia în Europa între 9.000 și 6.000 de ani în urmă. Cultivarea cerealelor și leguminoaselor s-a dezvoltat pentru prima dată acum 11.500 de ani în Semiluna Fertilă, în ceea ce este acum Israel / Palestina, Iordania, Liban, Siria și Irak, dar nu s-a extins mult dincolo de această regiune în primele două milenii și jumătate. Motivul acestei întârzieri a fost că agricultura timpurie a fost prea rudimentară pentru a permite o subzistență independentă și a fost doar un mod de a completa dieta vânătorilor-culegători. Cultivarea a început cu grâu, smochine și leguminoase. Domesticirea grâului și a orzului a fost un proces îndelungat care a necesitat selectarea soiurilor care posedă mutații pentru vârfuri mai mari, mai puțin fragile și care nu se sfărâmă. Câmpiile inundabile din Mesopotamia erau ideale pentru cultivarea primitivă a cerealelor, deoarece nu necesitau irigare. Ceramica apare prima dată în Orientul Apropiat în urmă cu aproximativ 9.000 de ani în nordul Mesopotamiei. Dezvoltarea ceramicii pare să coincidă cu expansiunea bruscă a agricultorilor G2a către vestul Anatoliei și Europa. Ceramica a permis depozitarea ușoară a cerealelor și a leguminoaselor și ar fi putut facilita comerțul cu ovicapridele și păstorii de bovine și crescătorii de porci. Caprele și oile fuseseră domesticite pentru prima oară în urmă cu aproximativ 11.000 de ani în munții Zagros și Taur de la marginea de nord a Semilunei Fertile, dar nu au fost introduse în Levant decât cu aproximativ 8.500 de ani în urmă (vezi Dezvoltarea păstorilor de capre și oi în timpul Levantinului Neolitic, A. Wasse, pp. 26-27), imediat după apariția ceramicii. …….. Se presupune că patria R1b1a1a2 (M269) și a vorbitorilor pre-proto-indo-europeni a fost situată în estul Anatoliei și / sau în Caucazul de Nord. Caucazul în sine este un punct fierbinte al haplogrupului G. Prin urmare, este în întregime de conceput ca o minoritate de bărbați caucazieni care aparțin haplogrupului G (și poate și J2b) să fi integrat comunitatea R1b care a traversat Caucazul și s-a stabilit pe țărmurile nordice și estice ale Marea Neagră, între 7.000 și 4.500 î.Hr.

Din Circassians Religion and beliefs

<< DE LA leagăn până la mormânt, crezul nativ circasian, împletit cu codul de conduită, Adige Xabze. Cu toate acestea, religia, obiceiurile și tradițiile erau două entități diferite. Considerarea Adige Xabze ca fiind religia tradițională a circasienilor este o greșeală obișnuită făcută chiar și de circasieni. În timp ce religia antică reglementa domeniile spirituale și rituale, Xabze reglementa aspectele de zi cu zi ale vieții circasiene. Linia de timp a credinței
Pentru a aprecia dimensiunea cronologică a manifestărilor credințelor și practicilor religioase în rândul circasienilor, este prezentat un liniu de timp de bază pentru progresul sistemelor religioase din Circassia. Animismul Animismul este probabil cea mai veche religie a circasienilor și a fost răspândită în rândul tuturor popoarelor din Caucazul de Nord. Originea sa datează probabil din epoca paleolitică sau vechea epocă a pietrei, cu mai mult de 10.000 de ani în urmă. Principiul de bază al animismului era credința că un suflet locuia în fiecare obiect, animat sau neînsuflețit, funcționând ca forță motrice și gardian. În gândirea animistă, natura era în viață. Într-o stare viitoare, spiritul ar exista ca parte a unui suflet imaterial. Prin urmare, se credea că spiritul este universal. Fantomele, demonii și zeitățile locuiau aproape toate obiectele, făcându-le supuse închinării.
Totemismul, definit ca relația intimă presupusă a exista între un individ sau un grup de indivizi și o clasă de obiecte naturale, i. e. totemul, stă la baza religiei primitive și este intim legat de animism.
Paganismul Directia s-a mutat de la animism și totemismul asociat, la păgânism, credința în posesia unor obiecte din natură a puterilor supranaturale și o concepție primitivă in zeități și a zeitati tutelare. Poate că păgânismul și-a găsit originea în epoca neolitică, în urmă cu mai bine de șapte milenii.
Politeismul Se crede că la ceva timp după mileniul al V-lea î.Hr., circasienii au început pe calea tranziției către politeism. >>

9.000 B.C. Göbekli Tepe people’s genetics

May 5, 2021

Genetics reveal that Göbekli Tepe neolithic population had deepest origin between Levant (Natufian civilization?) and Caucasus (see G-M201haplogroup) . Northern Mesopotamia and Caucasus was the origin of Eastern Anatolia (Sanliurfa-Göbekli Tepe) people. (see G2a haplogroup) They gave life to central Anatolian neolithic agricultural cultures.(see spread of G2a haplogroup) From that ones agriculture spread in Europe. As nowdays one can see that in Caucasus there is no religion and gods as in developed stratified complex societies, but one “Habza-way”- understanding, of a type much close to nature than inner society life.

From Caucasian neopaganism <<Circassian paganism, also called Khabzeism, is a pagan faith and one of the abandoned parts of Adyghe Xabze.An important element is the belief in the soul (psa) of the ancestors, who have the ability to observe and evaluate the affairs of their offspring. ……The souls of the ancestors require commemoration: funeral feasts are arranged (hedeus) and sacrifice or memorial meal preparations (zheryme) are practiced and distributed for the remembrance of the dead souls.The Habzist theology is monistic, with utmost prominence given to the god Tha …”his spirit is scattered throughout space”. …The material-manifested world is in perpetual change, but at the same time there is a foundation that always remains unshaken. That is the originating principle of the world and its Law.  Followers of this worldview, sometimes also Islamised, are found in modern day Turkey. The Xabze beliefs and Sufi-Islamic beliefs are seen as complementary philosophies by Circassians.The gods and goddesses are divided into two fundamentally different groups:

  1. Gods without image, cosmogonic (Tha, Uashkhue, Psetha, Schyble).
  2. Anthropomorphic (humanoid) gods (Mezytha, Tlepsh, Thagaledj, etc.). >>
  3. From Adyghe / Circassian Habze
The Adyghe “hammer cross” representing god Tha
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A Xabze wheel, representing the articulation of the universe from the center, Tha

The same was in 9.600 B.C. there, at Gobekli Tepe were no proper gods as we are accustomed to see, but rather animistic entities/demons and totem animals wich were close to wild animals and people way of life.


  • – Animist religion origin (a soul resided in every object, animate or inanimate, functioning as the motive force and guardian >> T pillars, alive ! Ghosts, demons, and deities inhabited allmost all objects !) Totemism (present at gobekli and Caucasus) – Gods without image – T(Tau) icon=God Tha icon Sumerian sign T=”ME”=”divine powers, essence, rite,beeing,will to live, etc etc” – Same genetic pool (haplogroup G2a) – Habze wheel spokes<12>Gobekli pillars

=============================== From Origin & Evolution of a Family :The Y-DNA Story

<< Over the next 20-30,000 years haplogroup descendants of haplogroup F arose in the Near East, history’s Fertile Crescent, then fanned out to populate the globe. These include all members of Haplogroups G through T, or 90% of the world’s population. The Origin of Haplogroup G ..haplogroup G, is defined by a mutation at the M201 site on the chromosome and is a widespread, but relatively uncommon type. Members of the haplogroup share a common ancestor who developed a mutation from the earlier haplogroup F about 45,000 years ago. The Upper Paleolithic The period from 50,000 to 10,000 years ago has been called the Late Stone Age or Uppler Paleolithic, and pre-dates the discovery of agriculture. It was in this period that anthropoligists believe mankind first began to demonstrate the ability to use complex symbolic thought and express cultural creativity, seen in cave paintings and the carving of voluptuous fertility figures.Exactly where in the Middle East haplogroup G may have originally emerged has been widely and fiercely debated. One group argues that it was somewhere in the region of the Caucasus mountains. This is the area of the greatest concentration of G haplotypes today. Haplogroup G is most common in North Ossetia and specifically, the town of Digora, with an average frequency of 74%. 29% of the Kabardinian and Balkarian peoples of the northwestern Caucasus are G types, and Azerbaijan and Armenia also have high concentrations of the haplogroup.

The other camp argues that it is a mistake to take this concentration of modern haplogroup G samples as proof of origin. They hold that the haplogroup arose, or at least had its population break-out, in the Levant of modern day Syria, Lebanon and Israel.

“Notice that while G-M201 reaches a high frequency (of about 50%) only in some areas of the Western and Central Caucasus, the variance of G for 8 (?!) STRs is highest in the Southern Levant.” – from the Facebook G-M201 webpage

So, in sum, haplogroup G’s origin was in the north or the south or in-between . . . Up until the last few years such theories were based on the use of DNA extracted from modern subjects and making assumptions based on current population densities. New techniques have since been developed that allow the use of DNA from ancient burial sites and these show little correlation with current dispersal patterns. One of the DNA field’s main researchers has said,

“. . . the homeland of this haplogroup [G] has been estimated to be somewhere nearby eastern Anatolia, Armenia or western Iran, the only areas characterized by the co-presence of deep basal branches as well as the occurrence of high sub-haplogroup diversity.”

So, perhaps we can agree to say that the locus of haplogroup G’s emergence was somewhere in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East, but most likely at its extreme northern tip in south-eastern Turkey, or Anatolia. …. ….. Haplogroup G had a slow start, evolving in isolation for tens of thousands of years, with a small population. A smaller population meant fewer total mutations and a more homogeneous group. …. ….. Our earliest G-type ancestors would still have been Stone Age Hunter-Gatherers, organized into small bands of semi-nomadic people living off the land. Genetic researchers refer to them as Anatolian Hunter-Gatherers (AHG). That group makes up one of the three ancestral types to populate Europe. The others were Western Hunter Gatherers (WHG) who entered Europe during the Paleolithic and Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) who entered in the early Bronze Age. The Dispersal of Haplogroup G The G-type parent clade, G-M201, finally branched into G1 and G2 types about 23,000 years ago. The population holding the G1 mutation would migrate east, out of the Fertile Crescent, into Iran, crossing over the Zagros mountains. Later they also moved north into Kazakhstan and further east into western India. Haplogroup G2, a mutation at P287 [L89], would move west into Anatolia and Cyprus, and northeast into the Caucasus Mountains. As you’ll read, below, our ancestors were part of the group that moved west. However, it was the descendants of these two main branches that would migrate and none of these movements would begin until the greatest invention in man’s history had been made, that of agriculture. This inspiration ushered in the era of the Neolithic, or New Stone Age, but it wouldn’t begin until another 10,000 years had passed.

Early Farmers and the Neolithic Spread of Haplogroup G2a We’ve already said that our haplogroup probably arose at the northern end of the Ferile Crescent. That sounds like the headwaters of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on or near the Armenian plateau in eastern Anatolia. The ancient city of Cayonu Tepesi, it dates to before 10,000 BC, is located there; see the map to the left. The people living in Cayonu are believed to be the first farmers of Anatolia. As far as I know, no usable DNA has been recovered from this site.

That singular source being the G2a farmers of Anatolia. Neolithic settlements identified in Anatolia include Catalhoyuk, Cayonu Tepesi, Nevali Cori, Asikli hoyuk, Boncuklu hoyuk, Hacilar, Gobekli Tepe, Norsuntepe, Kosk, and Mersin. Catalhoyuk, in Central Turkey, is considered the most advanced of these, and Cayonu Tepesi in the east, at the northern end of the Fertile Crescent, the oldest. Hacilar, in Western Turkey, followed Cayonu Tepesi and has been dated to 7,040 BC. – based on Wikipedia. These Anatolian farmers were the descendants of the Anatolan Hunter-Gatherers (AHG) mentioned earlier. …… Who were the ancestors of these Anatolian farmers?

“When it came to actually looking at the ancestral breakdown of Anatolians, Lazaridis et al. (2016) came up with a very solid model where Anatolians were a mix of lineages related to Ganj Dareh [Zagros mountains of Iran], Levant Neolithic, and WHG [Western Hunter Gatherer], with mixture proportions of 0.387, 0.339, and 0.274, respectively.” – from “The First Farmers, with a Focus on Anatolia” at

So, while there had been little mixing of farmer populations at the extreme eastern and western ends of the Fertile Crescent, those to its north, who later found their way into Anatolia, were a mixture of both and of local hunter-gatherers. Trade was probably the driver of this intercourse.

…. It was during the Neolithic period that our ancestors, haplogroup G2a, entered Europe from Anatolia, moving up through Greece and the Balkans into central Europe. They found a countryside that was very lightly settled

======================== I found in Haplogroup G2a (in Y-DNA)

<<Distribution of haplogroup G in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East

Distribution of haplogroup G in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East
Phylogenetic tree of haplogroup G2a (Y-DNA) - Eupedia

ORIGINS As of late 2016, there were 303 mutations (SNPs) defining haplogroup G, confirming that this paternal lineage experienced a severe bottleneck before splitting into haplogroups G1 and G2. G1 might have originated around modern Iran at the start of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), some 26,000 years ago. G2 would have developed around the same time in West Asia. At that time humans would all have been hunter-gatherers, and in most cases living in small nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes. Members of haplogroup G2 appear to have been closely linked to the development of early agriculture in the Fertile Crescent part, starting 11,500 years before present. The G2a branch expanded to Anatolia, the Caucasus and Europe, while G2b diffused from Iran across the Fertile Crescent and east to Pakistan. It is now found mostly among Lebanese and Jewish people, but also at low frequency in the Arabian peninsula, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. …… ….The highest genetic diversity within haplogroup G is found in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent, between the Levant and the Caucasus, which is a good indicator of its region of origin. History of haplogroup G2a Neolithic farmers and mountain herders The testing of Neolithic remains in various parts of Europe has confirmed that haplogroup G2a was the dominant lineages of Neolithic farmers and herders who migrated from Anatolia to Europe between 9,000 and 6,000 years ago. Cereal and legume farming first developed 11,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, in what is now Israel/Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq, but did not expand much beyond this region for the first two and a half millennia. The reason for this delay was that early agriculture was too rudimentary to allow an independent subsistence and was merely a way of supplementing the diet of hunter-gatherers. Cultivation started with wheat, figs and legumes. The domestication of wheat and barley was a lengthy process that necessitated the selection of cultivars that possess mutations for larger, less brittle and nonshattering spikes. The flood plains of Mesopotamia were ideal for primitive cereal farming as they did not require irrigation. Pottery first appears in the Near East approximately 9,000 years ago in northern Mesopotamia. The development of pottery seems to coincide with the sudden expansion of G2a agriculturalists toward western Anatolia and Europe. Pottery allowed easy storing of cereals and legumes and could have facilitated trade with neighbouring ovicaprid and cattle herders, and pig farmers. Goats and sheep had first been domesticated some 11,000 years ago in the Zagros and Taurus mountains on the northern edge of the Fertile Crescent, but were not introduced to the Levant until approximately 8,500 years ago (see The development of goat and sheep herding during the Levantine Neolithic, A. Wasse, pp. 26-27), just after the appearance pottery. …….. The homeland of R1b1a1a2 (M269) and Pre-Proto-Indo-European speakers is presumed to have been situated in eastern Anatolia and/or the North Caucasus. The Caucasus itself is a hotspot of haplogroup G. Therefore, it is entirely conceivable that a minority of Caucasian men belonging to haplogroup G (and perhaps also J2b) integrated the R1b community that crossed the Caucasus and established themselves on the northern and eastern shores of the Black Sea sometime between 7,000 and 4,500 BCE.

From Circassians Religion and beliefs

<<FROM the cradle to the grave, the Circassian native creed, intertwined with the code of conduct, Adige Xabze.Nevertheless, religion and customs and traditions were two different entities. Considering the Adige Xabze as the traditional religion of the Circassians is a common mistake made even by the Circassians themselves. Whereas ancient religion regulated the spiritual and ritual domains, the Xabze regulated the day-to-day aspects of a Circassian’s life. Time-line of Faith
In order to appreciate the chronological dimension of the manifestations of religious beliefs and practices amongst the Circassians, a basic time-line of the progression of religious systems in Circassia is presented. Animism  Animism is probably the most ancient religion of the Circassians, and it was prevalent among all peoples of the North Caucasus. Its origin probably dates back to the Palaeolithic Age, or the Old Stone Age, more than 10,000 years ago. The basic tenet of animism was the belief that a soul resided in every object, animate or inanimate, functioning as the motive force and guardian. In animistic thought nature was all alive. In a future state the spirit would exist as part of an immaterial soul. The spirit, therefore, was thought to be universal. Ghosts, demons, and deities inhabited almost all objects, rendering them subject to worship.
Totemism, defined as the intimate relation supposed to exist between an individual or a group of individuals and a class of natural objects, i. e. the totem, is at the root of primitive religion and is intimately related with animism.
Paganism The path moved from animism and the associated totemism to paganism, the belief in the possession of some objects of nature of supernatural powers, and a primitive conception of deities and patrons. Perhaps paganism found origin in the Neolithic Age, more than seven millennia ago.
Polytheism It is thought that some time after the fifth millennium BC, the Circassians started on the path of transition to polytheism. >>