9.000 B.C. Göbekli Tepe people’s genetics

Genetics reveal that Göbekli Tepe neolithic population had deepest origin between Levant (Natufian civilization?) and Caucasus (see G-M201haplogroup) . Northern Mesopotamia and Caucasus was the origin of Eastern Anatolia (Sanliurfa-Göbekli Tepe) people. (see G2a haplogroup) They gave life to central Anatolian neolithic agricultural cultures.(see spread of G2a haplogroup) From that ones agriculture spread in Europe. As nowdays one can see that in Caucasus there is no religion and gods as in developed stratified complex societies, but one “Habza-way”- understanding, of a type much close to nature than inner society life. From Caucasian neopaganism https://wikizero.com/en/Caucasian_neopaganism?fbclid=IwAR2XBry6IFzM3cF6dK99kXZ2PPUgrmv6_oto2BAUQw5CQPNMgReJUL6AqQU <<Circassian paganism, also called Khabzeism, is a pagan faith and one of the abandoned parts of Adyghe Xabze.An important element is the belief in the soul (psa) of the ancestors, who have the ability to observe and evaluate the affairs of their offspring. ……The souls of the ancestors require commemoration: funeral feasts are arranged (hedeus) and sacrifice or memorial meal preparations (zheryme) are practiced and distributed for the remembrance of the dead souls.The Habzist theology is monistic, with utmost prominence given to the god Tha …”his spirit is scattered throughout space”. …The material-manifested world is in perpetual change, but at the same time there is a foundation that always remains unshaken. That is the originating principle of the world and its Law.  Followers of this worldview, sometimes also Islamised, are found in modern day Turkey. The Xabze beliefs and Sufi-Islamic beliefs are seen as complementary philosophies by Circassians.The gods and goddesses are divided into two fundamentally different groups:

  1. Gods without image, cosmogonic (Tha, Uashkhue, Psetha, Schyble).
  2. Anthropomorphic (humanoid) gods (Mezytha, Tlepsh, Thagaledj, etc.). >>
  3. From Adyghe / Circassian Habzehttps://aratta.wordpress.com/2013/10/16/adyghe-circassian-habze/
The Adyghe “hammer cross” representing god Tha
Habzist wheel.png
A Xabze wheel, representing the articulation of the universe from the center, Tha

The same was in 9.600 B.C. there, at Gobekli Tepe were no proper gods as we are accustomed to see, but rather animistic entities/demons and totem animals wich were close to wild animals and people way of life. SO, I COULD HIPOTHESIS OF GENETIC AND CULTURAL-RELIGIOUS CONTINUITY IN NORTHERN MESOPOTAMIA (SOUTH-EASTERN ANATOLIA AND CAUCASUS). SOME COMMON CAUCASIAN-GOBEKLI-SUMERIAN TRAITS ARE: – Animist religion origin (a soul resided in every object, animate or inanimate, functioning as the motive force and guardian >> T pillars, alive ! Ghosts, demons, and deities inhabited allmost all objects !) Totemism (present at gobekli and Caucasus) – Gods without image – T(Tau) icon=God Tha icon Sumerian sign T=”ME”=”divine powers, essence, rite,beeing,will to live, etc etc” – Same genetic pool (haplogroup G2a) – Habze wheel spokes<12>Gobekli pillars =============================== From Origin & Evolution of a Family :The Y-DNA Story http://shissem.com/Hissem_DNA.html?fbclid=IwAR35Zlsuax0sbMk6h-hjWvt1xe-uUXyH3lPFHWW05XSW8lkJetUoHyo_-us << Over the next 20-30,000 years haplogroup descendants of haplogroup F arose in the Near East, history’s Fertile Crescent, then fanned out to populate the globe. These include all members of Haplogroups G through T, or 90% of the world’s population. The Origin of Haplogroup G ..haplogroup G, is defined by a mutation at the M201 site on the chromosome and is a widespread, but relatively uncommon type. Members of the haplogroup share a common ancestor who developed a mutation from the earlier haplogroup F about 45,000 years ago. The Upper Paleolithic The period from 50,000 to 10,000 years ago has been called the Late Stone Age or Uppler Paleolithic, and pre-dates the discovery of agriculture. It was in this period that anthropoligists believe mankind first began to demonstrate the ability to use complex symbolic thought and express cultural creativity, seen in cave paintings and the carving of voluptuous fertility figures.Exactly where in the Middle East haplogroup G may have originally emerged has been widely and fiercely debated. One group argues that it was somewhere in the region of the Caucasus mountains. This is the area of the greatest concentration of G haplotypes today. Haplogroup G is most common in North Ossetia and specifically, the town of Digora, with an average frequency of 74%. 29% of the Kabardinian and Balkarian peoples of the northwestern Caucasus are G types, and Azerbaijan and Armenia also have high concentrations of the haplogroup.

The other camp argues that it is a mistake to take this concentration of modern haplogroup G samples as proof of origin. They hold that the haplogroup arose, or at least had its population break-out, in the Levant of modern day Syria, Lebanon and Israel.

“Notice that while G-M201 reaches a high frequency (of about 50%) only in some areas of the Western and Central Caucasus, the variance of G for 8 (?!) STRs is highest in the Southern Levant.” – from the Facebook G-M201 webpage

So, in sum, haplogroup G’s origin was in the north or the south or in-between . . . Up until the last few years such theories were based on the use of DNA extracted from modern subjects and making assumptions based on current population densities. New techniques have since been developed that allow the use of DNA from ancient burial sites and these show little correlation with current dispersal patterns. One of the DNA field’s main researchers has said,

“. . . the homeland of this haplogroup [G] has been estimated to be somewhere nearby eastern Anatolia, Armenia or western Iran, the only areas characterized by the co-presence of deep basal branches as well as the occurrence of high sub-haplogroup diversity.”

So, perhaps we can agree to say that the locus of haplogroup G’s emergence was somewhere in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East, but most likely at its extreme northern tip in south-eastern Turkey, or Anatolia. …. ….. Haplogroup G had a slow start, evolving in isolation for tens of thousands of years, with a small population. A smaller population meant fewer total mutations and a more homogeneous group. …. ….. Our earliest G-type ancestors would still have been Stone Age Hunter-Gatherers, organized into small bands of semi-nomadic people living off the land. Genetic researchers refer to them as Anatolian Hunter-Gatherers (AHG). That group makes up one of the three ancestral types to populate Europe. The others were Western Hunter Gatherers (WHG) who entered Europe during the Paleolithic and Ancient North Eurasians (ANE) who entered in the early Bronze Age. The Dispersal of Haplogroup G The G-type parent clade, G-M201, finally branched into G1 and G2 types about 23,000 years ago. The population holding the G1 mutation would migrate east, out of the Fertile Crescent, into Iran, crossing over the Zagros mountains. Later they also moved north into Kazakhstan and further east into western India. Haplogroup G2, a mutation at P287 [L89], would move west into Anatolia and Cyprus, and northeast into the Caucasus Mountains. As you’ll read, below, our ancestors were part of the group that moved west. However, it was the descendants of these two main branches that would migrate and none of these movements would begin until the greatest invention in man’s history had been made, that of agriculture. This inspiration ushered in the era of the Neolithic, or New Stone Age, but it wouldn’t begin until another 10,000 years had passed.

Early Farmers and the Neolithic Spread of Haplogroup G2a We’ve already said that our haplogroup probably arose at the northern end of the Ferile Crescent. That sounds like the headwaters of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on or near the Armenian plateau in eastern Anatolia. The ancient city of Cayonu Tepesi, it dates to before 10,000 BC, is located there; see the map to the left. The people living in Cayonu are believed to be the first farmers of Anatolia. As far as I know, no usable DNA has been recovered from this site.

That singular source being the G2a farmers of Anatolia. Neolithic settlements identified in Anatolia include Catalhoyuk, Cayonu Tepesi, Nevali Cori, Asikli hoyuk, Boncuklu hoyuk, Hacilar, Gobekli Tepe, Norsuntepe, Kosk, and Mersin. Catalhoyuk, in Central Turkey, is considered the most advanced of these, and Cayonu Tepesi in the east, at the northern end of the Fertile Crescent, the oldest. Hacilar, in Western Turkey, followed Cayonu Tepesi and has been dated to 7,040 BC. – based on Wikipedia. These Anatolian farmers were the descendants of the Anatolan Hunter-Gatherers (AHG) mentioned earlier. …… Who were the ancestors of these Anatolian farmers?

“When it came to actually looking at the ancestral breakdown of Anatolians, Lazaridis et al. (2016) came up with a very solid model where Anatolians were a mix of lineages related to Ganj Dareh [Zagros mountains of Iran], Levant Neolithic, and WHG [Western Hunter Gatherer], with mixture proportions of 0.387, 0.339, and 0.274, respectively.” – from “The First Farmers, with a Focus on Anatolia” at populationgenomics.blog

So, while there had been little mixing of farmer populations at the extreme eastern and western ends of the Fertile Crescent, those to its north, who later found their way into Anatolia, were a mixture of both and of local hunter-gatherers. Trade was probably the driver of this intercourse.

…. It was during the Neolithic period that our ancestors, haplogroup G2a, entered Europe from Anatolia, moving up through Greece and the Balkans into central Europe. They found a countryside that was very lightly settled

======================== I found in Haplogroup G2a (in Y-DNA) https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_G2a_Y-DNA.shtml?fbclid=IwAR1hTVjGBWK6Wnd-7yPSBvGSwd6c1v_qdZGnzrXEz3yxxovvC-jci3MZiAs <<Distribution of haplogroup G in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East https://cache.eupedia.com/images/content/Haplogroup_G2a.gif

Distribution of haplogroup G in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East
Phylogenetic tree of haplogroup G2a (Y-DNA) - Eupedia

ORIGINS As of late 2016, there were 303 mutations (SNPs) defining haplogroup G, confirming that this paternal lineage experienced a severe bottleneck before splitting into haplogroups G1 and G2. G1 might have originated around modern Iran at the start of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), some 26,000 years ago. G2 would have developed around the same time in West Asia. At that time humans would all have been hunter-gatherers, and in most cases living in small nomadic or semi-nomadic tribes. Members of haplogroup G2 appear to have been closely linked to the development of early agriculture in the Fertile Crescent part, starting 11,500 years before present. The G2a branch expanded to Anatolia, the Caucasus and Europe, while G2b diffused from Iran across the Fertile Crescent and east to Pakistan. It is now found mostly among Lebanese and Jewish people, but also at low frequency in the Arabian peninsula, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Afghanistan and Pakistan. …… ….The highest genetic diversity within haplogroup G is found in the northern part of the Fertile Crescent, between the Levant and the Caucasus, which is a good indicator of its region of origin. History of haplogroup G2a Neolithic farmers and mountain herders The testing of Neolithic remains in various parts of Europe has confirmed that haplogroup G2a was the dominant lineages of Neolithic farmers and herders who migrated from Anatolia to Europe between 9,000 and 6,000 years ago. Cereal and legume farming first developed 11,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, in what is now Israel/Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq, but did not expand much beyond this region for the first two and a half millennia. The reason for this delay was that early agriculture was too rudimentary to allow an independent subsistence and was merely a way of supplementing the diet of hunter-gatherers. Cultivation started with wheat, figs and legumes. The domestication of wheat and barley was a lengthy process that necessitated the selection of cultivars that possess mutations for larger, less brittle and nonshattering spikes. The flood plains of Mesopotamia were ideal for primitive cereal farming as they did not require irrigation. Pottery first appears in the Near East approximately 9,000 years ago in northern Mesopotamia. The development of pottery seems to coincide with the sudden expansion of G2a agriculturalists toward western Anatolia and Europe. Pottery allowed easy storing of cereals and legumes and could have facilitated trade with neighbouring ovicaprid and cattle herders, and pig farmers. Goats and sheep had first been domesticated some 11,000 years ago in the Zagros and Taurus mountains on the northern edge of the Fertile Crescent, but were not introduced to the Levant until approximately 8,500 years ago (see The development of goat and sheep herding during the Levantine Neolithic, A. Wasse, pp. 26-27), just after the appearance pottery. …….. The homeland of R1b1a1a2 (M269) and Pre-Proto-Indo-European speakers is presumed to have been situated in eastern Anatolia and/or the North Caucasus. The Caucasus itself is a hotspot of haplogroup G. Therefore, it is entirely conceivable that a minority of Caucasian men belonging to haplogroup G (and perhaps also J2b) integrated the R1b community that crossed the Caucasus and established themselves on the northern and eastern shores of the Black Sea sometime between 7,000 and 4,500 BCE.

From Circassians Religion and beliefs https://circassianidentity.blogspot.com/p/circassian-religoin-and-belief.html?m=1&fbclid=IwAR0vyEnjvmZlwNdXHDJXJjts7z8lIAAT4Y20sAk6ffit3jdSmze88ft6jDs <<FROM the cradle to the grave, the Circassian native creed, intertwined with the code of conduct, Adige Xabze.Nevertheless, religion and customs and traditions were two different entities. Considering the Adige Xabze as the traditional religion of the Circassians is a common mistake made even by the Circassians themselves. Whereas ancient religion regulated the spiritual and ritual domains, the Xabze regulated the day-to-day aspects of a Circassian’s life. Time-line of Faith
In order to appreciate the chronological dimension of the manifestations of religious beliefs and practices amongst the Circassians, a basic time-line of the progression of religious systems in Circassia is presented. Animism  Animism is probably the most ancient religion of the Circassians, and it was prevalent among all peoples of the North Caucasus. Its origin probably dates back to the Palaeolithic Age, or the Old Stone Age, more than 10,000 years ago. The basic tenet of animism was the belief that a soul resided in every object, animate or inanimate, functioning as the motive force and guardian. In animistic thought nature was all alive. In a future state the spirit would exist as part of an immaterial soul. The spirit, therefore, was thought to be universal. Ghosts, demons, and deities inhabited almost all objects, rendering them subject to worship.
Totemism, defined as the intimate relation supposed to exist between an individual or a group of individuals and a class of natural objects, i. e. the totem, is at the root of primitive religion and is intimately related with animism.
Paganism The path moved from animism and the associated totemism to paganism, the belief in the possession of some objects of nature of supernatural powers, and a primitive conception of deities and patrons. Perhaps paganism found origin in the Neolithic Age, more than seven millennia ago.
Polytheism It is thought that some time after the fifth millennium BC, the Circassians started on the path of transition to polytheism. >>

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