Archive for March, 2019

“IF” round tablet is a month-female cycle related calendar

March 7, 2019

It is much a hypothesis, but other scientists give support. After first started, others begun to line up in a row, one after another.


Debunked: Study shows link between menstrual cycle and the moon … › Forums › Metabunk › Health and Quackery          no correlation between the lunar phases and the menstrual cycle or period start …. a related myth’ that more babies are born during the full moon period. …. As the Clue data shows, “a departure from a straight line” is exactly …

From                 A Place of Brightness

Then would be D D o c , Moon phases ?

and the sign +++++ would be for “15″                                                                                                From–Helladic-Mycenaeans.html

Image result for minoan numbers


                                                                                     The possibility of pregnancy is having sex at ovulation. Try to have sex close to ovulation period and as much possible for increasing your chances to become a mom.During the middle of a cycle, around day 14, the egg can get caught inside the fallopian tubes when it’s discharged during ovulation.THE UPPER HALF OF THE ROUND TABLET SHOW THE MOST NEWER SIGNS FROM ALL 3 TABLETS; COULD BE ARCHAIC GREEK LETTERS                                                                                                                                                     So in the left side                                                                                     Image result for moonlight tartariacould have – PA+Moon = All Moon (phases?), or                                     HP, monogram of ERA, HERA (“LADY”)

Hera – Wikipedia                                                                Hera is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.

Ce a intentionat scribul tablitei pictografice ?

March 7, 2019

Avand in vedere o presupusa faza incipienta a scrisului, m-am asteptat ca tablita pictografica sa fie un gen de rezumat si ajutor pentru mesajul de pe celelalte tablite. Adica pictogramele sa ofere indicatii usor de inteles prin pictograme  pentru citirea semnelor si intelegerea mesajului de pe celelalte tablite.Aceasta ingemanare si trecere intre pictograme si semne/ideograme este caracteristica celor mai incipiente faze ale inceputului scrisului. Acest fenomen in limbajul de specialitate se numeste aplicarea principiului “rebus. (lat.res,rei “lucru,lucruri”; rebus:”(despre) lucru”                                                                                                                                                                                        ———————————————————————–                                                                                                                     Singurul semn care este neclar este primul din stanga care are aparenta unui duh mai degraba decat ca arata a om. Dar o sa vedeti ca se pare ca precizarea intre acestea doua nu are importanta. Pentru ca dupa mine in mai mare masura vrea sa indice o atitudine sau act, acela de a da, a oferi. NOTA                                                                                                                                                                              Posibil are un echivalent in tablita rotunda, unde acel semn H cu 3 bare orizontale, il avem la sumerieni (in faza proto-cuneiforma) :                                                                                                                    Din 

sign KU~a

Sumerian Lexicon – IS MU…/Halloran_version_3.pdf

ku: to base, found, build; to lie down 
Din old akkadian writing and grammar – Oriental Institute – University of …


 Semnul Nr.1; ….capra cu corp de rata !!!……Este capra, capra salbatica, ibex !?
    In Sumer: Din


Fig. 6
Graphical (and
semantical ?)
between proto-
cuneiform and PE
signs and numerical
systems used to
account them (from
Englund 2004a :

fig. 5.14)

PE sign M346 with the proto-cuneiform UDU, used to record the small cattle
(caprinae) in general and more specifically sheep (female or male);
Oaie: UDU
UDU – sheep: sumerianwotd – The Sumerian Word of the Day

Se pare ca initial foloseau doua feluri de semne pentru capre (semnele 3 si 4 din randul de sus, insa semnul 3 a ramas in final consacrat doar pentru oi)                                                                                 Din DARA3~c

si DARA3~d

Din Aleksi Sahala: Extra-graphemic phonemes in Sumerian                                                                 dara4 ‘goat‘, /*dorah/, Akkadian turāhu.

Sumerian/List – Wikibooks, open books for an open world                                                              DAR3, DARA3 “ibex.

Animal and Man in Bible Lands: Supplement                                                                                                                       dara Wild goat, ibex                                                                                                                              —————————————————————————-

In Creta, Din

Male and female Cretan ibex.jpg

The kri-kri (Capra aegagrus cretica), sometimes called the Cretan goatAgrimi, or Cretan Ibex, is a feral goat inhabiting the Eastern Mediterranean, previously considered a subspecies of wild goat. The kri-kri is now found only on the island of CreteGreece and three small islands just offshore (DiaThodorou and Agii Pantes).

Din   RichardVallance

==========================================                                                               Semnul -<-<-<-  este un simbol vegetal.Este prezent la sumerieni ca si semnul SE iar la minoani semnul TE sisemnifica acelasi lucru.Din



The Akkadian Words for “Grain” and the God Ḫaya – Jstor;                                                                          Akkadian word for “barley, grain” corresponding to Sumerian SE was not

=====================================================                                              In concluzie, SE PARE CA ASA CUM AU OPINAT SI ALTI CERCETATORI, AR PUTEA FI VORBA DE                                                                                                                                              UN RITUAL DE OFRANDA UNEI ZEITATI (engl sacrifice ritual) A UNEI POPULATII EMINAMENTE AGRICOLE;                                                                                                                                           OFRANDA CE PUTEA SA FIE CONSTITUITA DIN CEREALE/PAINE SI ANIMALE/IEZI!                                                        ================================================                                                RAMANE DE VAZUT DACA SI IN CE MASURA                                                                                 TOATE TABLITELE AU FOST FOLOSITE IN ACELASI RITUAL SI MAI ALES                         IN CE MASURA EXISTA O LEGATURA INTRE ELE !

Un alt simbol prezent pe tablita de la Tartaria, comun civilizatiilor sumeriana si minoica

March 7, 2019

Un alt semn prezent pe tablita dreptunghiulara cu gaura de la Tartaria, este acel “cap de magar” Imaginea, din 3.1. Interpretarea simbolurilor neolitice

Acest semn apare in civilizatia minoica cu forma apropiata, ca simbol “MA” Din

Se pare ca originea atat pentru semnul de pe tablita de la Tartaria, cat si pentru semnul minoic este semnul sumerian proto-cuneiform AMAR:”vitel”/engl.CALF Taurul a fost un simbol comun civilizatiilor sumeriene si minoice:                                                                                        Possible connection between the cultures of Ancient Sumer and Minoan Crete;                                                      “There are certain hints that the Minoan civilization might have been influenced by, or even descended from, the Sumerian / Mesopotamian civilization of a thousand years earlier. According to David Rohl(Legend: The Genesis of Civilisation, London, Arrow Books 1998), the Phoenecians and Canaanites who inhabited the coast of what is now Israel and Lebanon came from Sumeria (Ur, Uruk, Eridu) at the same time as others from the same region went to Bahrain and then to the Upper Nile, some time around 3000 BC. If the Minoan culture was actually derived from the Sumerian, as seems not unlikely, it must have happened before writing became common in Sumer, around 3000 BC. Rohl’s dates tend to be more recent than the conventional dates, so when Rohl mentions 3000 BC, he refers to a time conventionally dated rather earlier, perhaps 3500 BC.           …………………………..                                                                                                                      The bull was important in the Minoan religion and culture, as it was in Sumer. Gilgamesh (who, according to Rohl, ruled in Uruk around 2487 BC) is shown as half-bull, half-man, as is the Cretan Minotaur in the much later Greek legend. The picture on the seal looks remarkably like depictions of the Minotaur, and it is possible that the Greeks knew of such depictions as well as of the bull cult in Minoan Crete. There are many other bull-man representations in images from Mesopotamia. Sometimes the body is bull in part or whole and the head human, sometimes the reverse. Perhaps there were similar Minoan images known to the Greeks, but as yet not discovered by modern archaeologists. So, one can assume that the bull-man “monster” was an image known to the Early Greeks of Minoan times.

Cercetatorii avanseaza ipoteza ca simbolul sumerian aMAr (vitel,taur), sau aMA (mama) a fost la originea minoicului MA, care de fapt a fost simbolul minoic al zeitei-mama.

Din Cretan Hieroglyphics & Protolinear Script | Giannhs Kenanidhs and …



DinThe Arkalochori Axe and its siblings | Giannhs Kenanidhs – Academia …


Semnele LABRYS si cele de pe tablita de la Tartaria de origine sumeriana ?

March 3, 2019

In scrierea Egeeana (hieroglifica cretana) , avem semnul: (Imaginea din The First ‘European’ Writing: Redefining the Archanes Script: Redefining the Archanes Script )


….si pe valea Indusului, Din;  …din pacate “Indus script” cum se mai numeste, este departe de a fi descifrata, ca atare nu stim ce semnifica cu adevarat acel semn care seamana perfect cu securea dubla minoana….

Image result for indus script oxhide ingot

Sau din Minoan Linear A, Linear B, Knossos & Mycenae

Image result for tartaria bucranium

Pe de alta parte, avem in tablita dreptunghiulara (“cu gaura”) de la Tartaria, un semn cumva asemanator (Nr.4 si Nr.7):



Semnul Egeean pentru Labrys seamana cu semnele de pe tablita noastra.                             Sa aiba ambele (Creta si Tartaria) la origine semne din Sumer ??                                                ————————————————————————————-

Semnul sumerian proto-cuneiform AB:”templu,casa”   Din

urncambridge-orgidbinary1770620160804090558862-066803648fig5_9                                                                               Din The Tower of Babel Cuneiform in the Fertile Crescent, 3100-500 BCE

Din sign AB~a :”casa,templu”


Alte semne care seamana cu cel Egeean si cu ale noastre:                                                           – semnul ZAG:“metal”stralucire(metalului)

Din Sumerian Dictionary – bulgari-istoria Metals = ZAG (the shine of metals).


                                                                                                                      Acest semn a fost folosit de sumerieni pentru lingouri metalice ! Aceasta forma specifica a fost folosita pentru lingouri in absolut toata lumea si in engleza forma este denumita OXHIDE :”piele de bou” pentru ca o pielea de vita intinsa are aceasta forma.

Lingou cipriot din bronz,                                                                                                                Din;  Period:Late Bronze AgeDate:ca. 1450–1050 B.C.Culture:Cypriot Medium:Copper

Image result for oxhide ingot                                                                                                                          Din Semnul GA’AR ===========================================

Daca semnul Egeean a provenit din unul sau din ambele semne sumeriene, cum se face ca la Egeeni inseamna Labrys?                                                                                                        Dupa ipoteza cercetatorilor G.PAPAKITSOS si I.KENANIDIS, primii minoani au fost de fapt colonisti sumerieni, care cunosteau semnificatia semnelor lor proto-cuneiforme, iar acestea au fost adaptate in Creta, forma si semnificatia suferind in timp transformari.                                                                                                                        Nota                                                                                                                                                    Autorii mai sus mentionati au aratat intr-o lucrare asemanarea semnului labrys cu un semn sumerian. Insa desi ei sustin ca originea semnelor minoane au fost primele semne sumeriene proto-cuneiforme, cand sa exemplifice acest lucru, au luat o varianta mai tarzie pentru labrys (semnul “A”), si in consecinta au ales neinspirat si gresit semnul corespunzator sumerian. Astfel, pentru mine exemplul ales de dansii este cel putin  neconvingator.                                                                                                                          ———————————————————————————————–                                       Faptul surprinzator este acela ca ar fi posibil ca semnul Egeean “Labrys” sa aiba la origine ambele semne sumeriene si intr-un fel a pastrat semnificatia originala a ambelor:

– Semnificatie original sumeriana de casa, Templu pentru ca in toate pesterile si locurile sacre, acest simbol este prezent.Se pare ca pentru minoani mai mult decat ca reprezinta securea cu doua taisuri era simbol regal si divin.Labyrintul era de fapt casa securii cu doua taisuri LABRY-nthos=LABYRINTHOS.Si era de fapt locul sacru al Minotaurului divin, de fapt tremplul subpamantean salasul soarelui in parcursul sau nocturn.

– Apoi a pastrat si semnificatia de “stralucirea metalului” simbolul reproducant destul de fidel   securile stralucitoare cu doua taisuri din bronz, argint si aur prezente in locurile sacre. (particulaa “stralucitor” era prezenta in numele multor regi sumerieni si hititi, sub forma unor sufixe -kug/kuga, (ex.urdu-kuga); -dag)                                          =============================================

NU SANT SIGUR CE REPREZENTAU SEMNELE PE TABLITA DE LA TARTARIA;                             Inclin pentru – casa, templul ( zeului, zeitei )   datorita faptului ca semnul nostru seamana foarte mult cu sum. [Ab  :”templu”]. De-abea mai apoi seamana intrucatva si cu semnul ZAG, “stralucire, metal (lingou)”?….. si in ultimul rand seamana cu vre-o “sacure”  ===============================================                                                      EXCURSUS ASUPRA                                                                                                                   RELATIEI COMPLEXE INTRE NOTIUNI SI VALORI RELIGIOASE SI CULTURALE  DE IMPORTANTA COVARSITOARE REFLECTATE IN SEMNE;                                                        EXEMPLU ICOANA SECURII DUBLE 

Vedeti dumneavoastra, nu securea dubla ca obiect era in focarul spiritualitatii ci simbolul sau. Inca din paleolitic, apoi se poate vedea foarte clar la inceputurile civilizatiei egiptene ca maciuca/buzduganul/eng. mace era simbolul puterii si simbol regal totodata.                                                                                                                         Imaginea babylonian  plaque.jpgMolded plaque with a king or god carrying a mace Din

La inceputul epocii cuprului si la fel la cea a bronzului (oriunde in lume!),  datorita putinatatii, metalul era privit ca un material nobil, luciul lui avand un impact psihologic major, iar arme metalice aveau doar conducatorii. De aceea semnul puterii,maciuca sau toporul din piatra a fost inlocuit cu toporul din metal. Astfel s-a pastrat ca simbol al puterii, iar stralucirea in general, a fost asociata atatbcuprului sau bronzului cat si direct cu cea a astrelor si soarelui. La minoani, in foarte multe din locurile unde se desfasurau ritualuri religioase sau gasit semne ale securii duble.De fapt se pare ca era semnul puterii  divinitatii astrale feminine. Divinitatea suprema era asemuita cu soarele. Se zice ca acele constructii subterane labirintice au legatura cu labrysul, in sensul ca etimologia lui labirint vine de la labrys, iar labirintul provine dintr-un cuvant care exprima “casa securii duble”


“Labyrinth is a word of pre-Greek origin, which the Greeks associated with the palace of Knossos in Crete, excavated by Arthur Evans early in the 20th century. The word appears in a Linear B inscription as da-pu-ri-to.[9][10][11] As early as 1892 Maximilian Mayer suggested[12] that labyrinthos might derive from labrys, a Lydian word for “double-bladed axe”.[13]Evans suggested that the palace at Knossos was the original labyrinth, and since the double axe motif appears in the palace ruins, he asserted that labyrinth could be understood to mean the house of the double axe”.[9] This designation may not have been limited to Knossos, since the same symbols were discovered in other palaces in Crete.[14] However Nilsson observes that in Crete the “double axe” is not a weapon and always accompanies goddesses or women and not a male god. ”

Eu n-as prea fi de acord, zic ca mai repede:                                                                          “Beekes finds the relation with labrys speculative, and suggests instead the relation with lavra (λαύρα), narrow street.[16] The original Minoan word appears to refer to labyrinthine grottoes, such as seen at Gortyn.[17] Pliny the Elder‘s four examples of labyrinths are all complex underground structures,[18] and this appears to have been the standard Classical understanding of the word. It is also possible that the word labyrinth is derived from the Egyptian loperohunt, meaning palace or temple by the lake.[citation needed] The Egyptian labyrinth near Lake Moeris is described by Herodotus and Strabo. [19] By the 4th century BC, Greek vase painters also represented the Labyrinth by the familiar “Greek key” patterns of endlessly running meanders.

Sau radacina lui merge atat de departe spre nostratica, pana la radacina a lui gauri,gaura:  sum. bur, I.E. bor/bohren/buru-iana

Dar sa revenim; acel semn nu avea deloc rolul sa faca trimitere la vre-o secure concreta, ci era un gen de semn-sigiliu al divinitatii.                                                                                    Acele constructii labirintice, la minoani,                                                                                             ” In Greek mythology, the Labyrinth (Ancient GreekΛαβύρινθος labúrinthos) was an elaborate, confusing structure designed and built by the legendary artificer Daedalus for King Minos of Crete at Knossos. Its function was to hold the Minotaur, the monster eventually killed by the hero Theseus.” Numai ca minotaurul are legatura cu taurul, si nu orice taur ce taurul ceresc, soarele.

 NU I-MI ESTE COMPLET CLAR, IN CE MASURA SIMBOLUL SECURII DUBLE ERA AL ZEITATII ASTRALE FEMININE SI IN CE MASURA AL REGILOR (MINOS)                                                                                          Atat la minoani cat si la egipteni erau temple consacrate unei divinitati solare si probabil asemanator sumerienilor, aspectului nevazut al soarelui acela al parcursului subpamantean (la sumerieni NERGAL).                De aceea au construit aceste temple subpamantene ca fiind  casa soarelui in aspectul sau ascuns.Tot acolo au imaginat si egiptenii ca fiind locul trecerii in lumea de apoi.

Din Minoan ‘Horns of Consecration’ Revisited: A Symbol of Sun Worship In ……/Minoan_Horns_of_Consecration_Revisited_A_Symbol_… &nbsp;Minoan ‘Horns of Consecration’ Revisited: A Symbol of Sun Worship In Palatial …. the significance of the Knossian labyrinth Egyptians deserves a fresh discussion ….. the afterlife; simultaneously, she was arrangement of the specific symbols is .

Din”the word is linked to the Minoan labrys or ‘double axe’, the symbol of the Minoan mother goddess of Crete,

==================================================                                                    Insa dupa opinia mea, acesta forma nu este intamplatoare, ci este forma constelatiei celei mai vizibile pe firmament, constelatia ORION,                                                                     Din

Image result for paleolithic orion in aspectul sau

Apare inca din Paleolitic: Din;                                                                                                       ”

“Orion is a prominent constellation located on the celestial equator and visible throughout the world. It is one of the most conspicuous and recognizable constellations in the night sky. It was named after Orion, a hunter in Greek mythology. Its brightest stars are Rigel (Beta orionis) and Betelgeuse (Alpha orionis), a blue-white and a red supergiant, respectively.

The earliest depiction that has been linked to the constellation of Orion is a prehistoric (Aurignacian) mammoth ivory carving found in a cave in the Ach valley in West Germany in 1979. Archaeologists have estimated it to have been fashioned approximately 32,000 to 38,000 years ago. The distinctive pattern of Orion has been recognized in numerous cultures around the world, and many myths have been associated with it.”

“The Ach Valley Tusk is a piece of mammoth ivory, recovered from Geißenklösterle Cave near Ulm, Germany, that has a human figure carved into one side and a series of 86 pits or notches cut into the other. Rappengluek identified the human figure as a star map representing the constellation Orion.”

Constelatie care probabil era perceputa ca salas, loc de rezidenta cereasca a zeilor (asociat cu Usar/Osiris si locul in careajungeau sufletele faraonilor in Egipt)


The Ancient Egyptians were the first to write about Orion, and place him into their mythologies. They associate the stars of Orion with Osiris, the sun-god of rebirth and afterlife, and one of the most important gods of the ancient Egyptians. (1)Orion was considered the abode of Osiris following his resurrection. Isis dwelt on Sirius. In Egyptian mythology, Osiris was murdered and dismembered by his jealous brother, Seth, then briefly brought back to life by his sister and consort Isis to father the god Horus. Egyptians saw Osiris in the Moon, whose phases caused the all-important Nile to rise and fall each month, and in the constellation Orion, whose appearance was connected with the annual flood. As god of the dead, Osiris welcomed the recently deceased to their new world.

Sirius, the brightest star in the sky, rises on the eastern horizon just before the Sun once each year. This following a period of complete invisibility lasting about 70 days (during which time it lies in the daytime sky). Egyptian inscriptions describe the last appearance of Sirius in the night sky as its death; its daytime invisibility as purification in the embalming house of the nether world; and its rising with the Sun as a resurrection. Accordingly they calibrated the process of mummification to this celestial cycle, completing it in exactly 70 days.

In the sky, Orion is depicted facing the snorting charge of neighbouring Taurus the Bull, yet the myth of Orion makes no reference to such a combat. However, the constellation can be traced back to the Sumerians, who saw in it their great hero Gilgamesh fighting the Bull of Heaven. The Sumerian name for Orion was URU AN-NA, meaning light of heaven. Taurus was GUD AN-NA, bull of heaven. Gilgamesh was the Sumerian equivalent of Heracles. One of the labours of Heracles was to catch the Cretan bull, which would fit the Orion–Taurus conflict in the sky. Ptolemy described him with club and lion’s pelt, both familiar attributes of Heracles, and he is shown this way on old star maps.


Nota                                                                                                                                                       Pe placuta rotunda de la Tartaria, avem un semn, (cel din stanga)

d7f67-nwgrid asemanator cu semnul sumerian proto-cuneiform KU:”metal”

Din [PDF]Elementary Sumerian Glossary – bulgari-istoria


by JA Halloran kug, : n., silver; precious metal; money; noble (ku, ‘to base, build’ + aga(3), ‘diadem, …

Deci iar este posibil sa avem de lucru daca nu chiar cu metalul atunci cu “lucitor,stralucitor”

A se vedea si Centrul Cultural „Lucian Blaga” Sebeș


Click to access 08_CIPopa.pdf

=================================                                                                                                          Din The Minoan Double Axe Goddess and Her Astral Realm;                                                                                                                                                    N. Ch. Stampolidis, A. Kanta and A. Giannikouri (eds.) Athanasia. The Earthly, the Celestial and the Underworld in the Mediterranean from the Late Bronze and Early Iron Age., 2012 J. MacGillivray

<< 1.6. Mesopotamian origins                                                                                                         The double-bitted axe symbol first appears as amulets, along with those of a goddess, bucrania and birds, in the Early Halaf period (c. 6500 to 5600 BC) from Tell Dahab in the Amuq, and Arpachiyah near Nineveh in Iraq’s Khabur valley, and again in the Late Halaf period (c. 5600 to 5300 BC) from Chagar Bazar in the Khabur area of Syria. Relevant here is that the horizon sign, Egyptian djew, Aegean ‘horns of consecration’,is also found in Mesopotamia earlier than in Crete in the Jemdet Nasr period (c.3000 BC) at Tell Brak in Syria, Nuzi and Tepe Hissar in Iraq. Hood demonstrates the Elamite origin of the double-bitted axe tool, the oldest surviving example of which dates to Susa I, the Early Uruk period c. 4,000 BC. Inscribed double-axe signs appear in Uruk IV (3300-3100 BC) and III (3100 – 3000 BC) and at Fara at the same time; important to note here are the central dots. The written and inscribed Proto-Elamite double axes belong to approximately 2250 BC in the Early Bronze Age, and so quite close to when they first appear in the Cretan scripts.


Of all the religious symbols and emblems that appear in the Minoan civilization the double axe is the most conspicuous, the real sign of Minoan religion and as omnipresent as the cross in Christianity and the crescent in Islam,’ declares Martin Nilssonin his fundamental study of the Minoan-Mycenaean religion.
How, we ask, could a Mesopotamian tool become such aprominent Cretan icon, and what could it represent?In Crete, effigies of the common lumberjack’s tool, with or without the haft, are first found in burials, caves and on mountainpeaks. These contexts suggest funerary, chthonic and celestial functions for the double axe symbol in the Pre- andProtopalatial periods from EM IIA to MM IIB. In the Neopalatial period, MM III to LM I, the symbol appears throughout Crete and Aegean artists combine it with others, such as the bucranium, stylized mountain, vegetation, rosette/star, garment/knot, and multiple bows (‘snake frame’). Birds and the horizon sign (‘horns of consecration’) are added to this repertoryin the Postpalatial period, LM II-III, to create complex emblems. But, of what? Despite the symbol’s widespread Cretanpopularity, there is little agreement as to its meaning and no full study of its transformation during the Bronze Age.
Sir Arthur Evans, who gave us the first modern re-creation of the Bronze Age Cretans, our Minoans, initially saw the double axe as their most sacred symbol, which he thought represented bull sacrifices. This view, bolstered by bucrania incised onaxe heads and double-bitted axes depicted with bovine heads, is still very much prevalent.
But, these bucrania are bovine,as likely to be cows as bulls. And, a quick look at Minoan iconography shows that daggers, not axes, cut victim’s throats in the sacrifice scenes that appear under Greek influence in the Late Bronze Age.Evans first placed the double-bitted axe, Homer’s peleke, in the hands of a Minoan god on the basis of its later association to Zeus Labraundos in Lycia.
But the Phrygian mother goddess Cybele, venerated as the Idaian Mountain Mother and akinto Greek Rhea and Egyptian Aset (Isis), was also associated with the double axe – Hesychius relates that κυβελις was another name for πελεκυς.
This goddess association better suits the Bronze Age iconography, which shows the tool almost exclusivelyin close proximity to women, and ‘never seen in the hands of a male god’, as Nilsson observes.
Thus, Evans concluded that it was ‘the special iconic form of the supreme Minoan divinity, the Great Mother, and her male satellite.’
But, can we assumethat the double axe carried the same meaning throughout the Cretan Bronze Age, and how might this relate to its meaningin Egypt and Mesopotamia, where it originates? And, how does an axe come to symbolize the ‘Great Mother’?Here, I review briefly the double-bitted axe symbol’s Aegean, Mesopotamian and Egyptian history, consider its likely inspiration, and then return to Evans’s Great Mother interpretation with a fuller appreciation and understanding.
1. History
1.1. Prepalatial Crete
The double-bitted axe, a well-balanced lumberjack’s tool, first appears in Crete with metallurgy near the start of the BronzeAge.Cast in moulds like most other bronze implements in the Minoan tool kit, the double-bitted axe was ideal for felling thetrees essential to builders, wainwrights and shipwrights.
As such, it remained popular throughout the Bronze Age. But, thedouble-bitted axe also appears in effigy alongside the tool. Non-utilitarian double axes in copper, lead and stone are foundat the Early Minoan funerary complexes in the Mesara and Mochlos in approximately 2800-2600 BC. Three are pendants,perhaps amulets worn in life and/or attached to the deceased.Votive examples come from Mochlos Tomb II and KamilariII. Large examples, probably for display, are found outside the tombs at Apesokari II and Platanos B. The votives from the Chamazi peak sanctuary also belong to this time, and two broken examples come from possible ritual contexts at Vasiliki.

The symbol’s funerary use, both as grave offering, and for display in adjacent open areas where funerary rituals likely took place, firmly link the double axe to the early Cretan’s eschatology, and Branigan believes that this is the Early Minoan originof the Minoan double axe goddess depicted often in Late Minoan art.
The symbol may also appear as a design on pottery, if we regard the ‘butterfly’ motif painted on Koumasa Style EM IIApottery from Koumasa, Knossos, the Eileithiea cave, Myrtos-Pyrgos and Pseira, as shorthand for the double axe.
The butterfly/double axe design is also found on four juglets from the EM III-MM IA Vat Room Deposit at Knossos, and appears in EM III-MM IA East Cretan Light-on-dark Ware.
These are contemporary with the double axe’s appearance inCrete’s earliest scripts: on a sealing from the Monolithic Pillar Basement, at Knossos, and in the so-called ‘Archanes script’at the Fourni cemetery at Archanes, where it is part of what is later recognized as the Minoan Linear A ‘libation formula’.This strongly suggests that the Cretans assigned the double axe sign a phonetic value when developing their first scripts .

                                                                                                                                                               1.2 Protopalatial Crete
The double axe is the most frequent sign incised onto blocks when the Minoans, starting in MM IB, build Crete’s first greatbuildings with central courts, known to archaeologists as palaces. It appears in the Minoan Hieroglyphic script, and also asan individual sign, mark, or graffito on pottery. It also appears on its own in Minoan glyptic, as we see in the Malia atelier dessceaux, and on sealings from Knossos, and Phaistos.
One of the latter, from the MM II Phaistos sealing deposit, is particularlyinteresting as it preserves the impression of an Egyptian-style scarab engraved with at least two double axe heads eachcombined with a loop in place of the haft.
This combination is quite common in the late Neopalatial period, where wesee an Egyptian inspiration, discussed below, which fits well with its scarab support here. Another motif combination, whichis quite common in the next phase but appears now, is the oval or disc centred above the head, evident on a ring sealingfrom Knossos and a sealing from Phaistos.
The double axe’s continued votive and/or ritual role is shown by the deposit of two large and thirty-two small bronze examplesin a Protopalatial (MM I-II) stratum high atop Mt Juktas, designated by Evans, who first explored the site, as the ash altar.
Their excavator, Alexandra Karetsou, believes that the Juktas cult was similar to that on Mt Petsophas near Palaikastro, andthat it was to the ‘mountain mother’ and her male consort.
The six small bronze examples from the MH I tumuli at Kastroulia in Messenia are unique in the Greek Peloponnese and mayindicate a unique Cretan presence there.
The double axe does not figure on Protopalatial pottery, unless we consider the reserved zone left when a circle has twodots placed at the top and bottom, and the principal motif on an unusual vase from Phaistos
1.3. Early Neopalatial Crete
Unmistakable depictions of the double axe, often elaboratedand embellished

with vegetal, astral/solar and bucranium motifs,appear suddenly on pottery in MM IIIB and LM IA.
Votive axes arealso embellished with elaborate designs that recall vegetation,as we see on numerous examples from the Arkalochori hoard.
Spyridon Marinatos, who excavated the Arkalochori rock shelter,placed these votives in the MM III-LM I periods. A specific LM IA datefor their manufacture may be proposed for two reasons. The firstis their very close similarity to the double axe’s early appearancein wall painting at Akroriti in Thera.
The second is that none ofthe Arkalochori axes has the
 double bit doubled or extended, afeature not seen until LM IB.The Linear A script also uses the double axe sign (08) and a clue toits phonetic value of ‘a’ comes from Cypro-Minoan and Linear B.
If this value is inherited unchanged from the earlier Cretan scripts, asOlivier believes,
the double axe sign, which appears at the start ofthe Linear A ‘libation formula’, so called because of its frequencyon stone libation tables, and believed to denote a divinity,
maybe the first sign in a divine name or title. Already in the Archanesand Hieroglyphic scripts, we see juxtaposed the double axe (042)and ‘sepia’ sign (019), essential elements in the common ‘libationformula’ that most read as A-SA-SA-RA and take to be a femaledivinity’s name (Fig. 1).
The double axe icon, then, could beshorthand for a Minoan goddess whose name begins with ‘a’ andis called something like Ashera.Two Arkalochori votive axes have Linear A inscriptions (Fig. 2),which some read as either I-DA-MA-TE, or I-DA-PHA-TE.
The latter reading suggests a male god called Itar, father of the godsafter whom the Mt Ida is called. The former appeals more hereand may be read in two ways. If sign 28, read as ‘i’, at the startfunctions like the Egyptian introductory interjection ‘i’ in religioustexts,
we could read ‘O Demeter’. This works well with the DA-MA-TE inscription on a stone bowl from Kythera.
Another readingcould be ‘Ida Mate’ – ‘Idaian Mother’ – the name for the Anatoliangoddess whom the Phrygians called Cybele, their ‘MountainMother of Ida’, comparable to Egyptian Aset (Isis), equivalent toDemeter and Rhea for the ancient Greeks. As we have seen  one of Cybele’s attributes is the double axe, or peleke. Another is the wild feline, and one is struck by the possibility, if we read back from Linear B, that the Minoans used the feline head (sign 80)to denote the phonetic ‘ma’. Either of the latter readings gives us a votive offering to the Minoan equivalent of Aset (Isis),Demeter, Rhea, and Cybele called, either Mate, mother, or Demeter.One Arkalochori axe has an inscription in a singular pictographic script that could represent an earlier offering than themajority, and perhaps be from a group that wrote a script and spoke a language different to that/those in the morecommon Cretan scripts.
The Theran fresco examples from Xeste 4 are two double axes painted to represent gold with incised lines suspended froman elaborate offering stand, which also has the multiple – triple in this case – archery bows that Evans called the ‘snakeframe’, possibly a bovine bucranium and Egyptian djew
sign that Evans called the ‘horns of consecration’, held by a redhaired male in a procession that climbs the building’s stairs.
This is the earliest securely dated association of the multiplebow with the double axe, and perhaps bucranium and djew motif, all together in the same composition. There is a directassociation with the bovine head as the double axe icon now appears frequently between the horns of a bucranium (Fig.3), perhaps most famously on the niello Dendra cup.
The earliest firm evidence for metal signet rings with representations of double axes with people, common in LM IB andlater, is on a LM IA sealing from Akrotiri in Thera.
Here we see a figure, perhaps male, in an elaborate garment holding theemblem on its haft. This sort of large emblematic axe in the art coincides with the appearance of what Evans called ‘double
axe stands’ – stone pyramidal bases, perhaps symbolizing mountains, with sockets at the top designed to receive just such astout haft with double axe at the top, as clearly depicted in Minoan glyptic and later on the LM III Agia Triada sarcophagus(Fig. 4).
These stands are found at Knossos and elsewhere starting in LM IA. Taken with the double axe’s emblematicappearance on signet rings, these pyramidal stands show how the symbol emerges in LM IA as one of the Minoans’s mostprominent icons, no longer restricted to peaks, caves and cemeteries. To judge from where double axe stands are found atPalaikastro, this icon may have been displayed in upper story shrines, perhaps even on the roof.
Such a prominent displayfunction helps to explain the four huge and striking double axes from Nirou Khani which, when polished would shine brightlyand be visible from afar.
A variant of the double axe appears on LH I pottery, contemporary with LM IA, on the Greek mainland, where the votiveexamples in bronze from the hilltop sanctuary at Kynortion, beneath the shrine of Apollo Maleatas overlooking Epidauros,suggest either that the Achaeans also had a ritual use for it, perhaps similar to that of the Cretans, or, more likely given itsrarity there, that this sanctuary was founded and frequented by Minoans, who also established their peak sanctuary inKythera 
1.4. Late Neopalatial Crete

The LM IB period following the cataclysmic Thera eruption sees the construction of Crete’s grandest buildings during theMinoan Renaissance, or what Nicolas Coldstream and George Huxley aptly termed the ‘Minoan Indian Summer’.
This iswhen Mycenae rises to Aegean prominence and Tuthmose III renders the Levant firmly under his control.
The double axeemblem takes on even greater prominence and elaboration with a number of significant innovations.The double-bitted axe head is itself doubled so that the head has four bits. This is evident on Minoan Marine Style pottery, in
wall painting, glyptic, ivory, and metal votives.
Significantly, the haft instead of the head is doubled on LH IIA pottery.
This doubling may indicate a doubling of the divinities represented by the icon.
The decorative motif on LM IB pottery often has a small horizontal stroke above the staff, which links it directly to Linear Asign 08b. This sign could signify, either a long ‘a’, or aspirated, ‘ha’, and, significantly, appears at the start of the divine namea-sa-sa-ra.
Perhaps most striking is the symbol’s incorporation of new elements, such as the length of cloth or rope that Evans dubbed the‘Sacral Knot’ motif in place of the haft (Fig. 5).
This Sacral Knot is also reproduced in faience and ivory, which underscoresits importance.
Evans compared it to the Egyptian ankh, symbol for eternal life, but a closer likeness may be found in theEgyptian tiet, also known as the Blood of Isis, or the Isis Knot, the length of cloth that secures the gods’ garments. The tiet is often combined with the sistrum in Hathor icons, because Isis and Hathor are largely merged in Egypt’s New Kingdom.This possible link with Egypt’s tiet, or Isis Knot, permits us to read the familiar scenes in many LM IB and later seals and signets,where the axe, the garment, the knot and the bovine head, may be attributes of the Minoan equivalent to EgyptianAset(Isis)/Hathor. One of Hathor’s many guises is the great primeval cow goddess who suckles and protects pharaoh, so sheis often shown as a cow or woman with bovine ears. Another is as ‘Lady of the West’ who welcomed the deceased to theafterlife with purifying and refreshing water.
On the ceiling of her temple at Dendera we see Hathor with her cow ears risingbetween the twin sycamore trees on the horizon symbolized by the
djew, well known to Aegean archaeologist’s as Evans’s‘horns of consecration.’ fig.6
                                                                                                                                                               1.5. Postpalatial Crete
The supremacy of the Danae and their arrival in Crete coincident with the drawn outviolent military campaigns from the LM IB to LM IIIA1 periods sees the introduction ofnew burial practices in Crete. Single inhumations in boxes, or larnakes appear in largecemeteries. Vance Watrous believes that the Minoan-Mycenaean larnax is based onthe Egyptian linen chests that were buried with their owners.
These linen chests weredecorated with scenes from the deceased’s afterlife and emblems from mortuaryritual. In Crete, we see afterworld depictions based on Nilotic prototypes ‘probablythe result of Cretan contacts with Egypt,’ Watrous suggests.
The Minoan painterssubstitute Hathor’s head rising above the horizon sign, as shown on the ceiling of her Dendara temple, with the double axe. (Fig. 7)Best known of these LM III larnakes is the finely painted plastered example from AyiaTriada.
Here we see doubled double-bitted axes atop vegetal shafts set into steppedpyramidal stands with birds perched on top (Fig. 4). The bird, which first appearswith the double axe in LM III, stands atop single posts or columns in the protopalatialperiod, and so it may be associated here with the haft rather than the axe head. Thisbird could symbolize a host of concepts, but one attractive explanation comes fromthe Egyptian story that Aset (Isis) became a swallow and fluttered around the pillar or tree that contained the body of her dead brother/husband Osiris.The double axe, bird and
djew remain together in Cretan art, especially in funeraryart on larnakes, until the end of the Bronze Age (Fig. 7). The horizon sign and the birdon the tree or pillar have convincing Egyptian parallels. Could the double axe alsohave a related meaning in Egypt >>