First writing signs in history, Göbekli Tepe.

April 18, 2021

In human history there are some signs as cross and swastica wich are present in rock-art lasted millenia. So it seem that the tau cross is much older than tau, stauros the pillar to which the bulls were tied. From First pictorial representation of Göbekli Tepe T-pillars found on tiny bone plaque Andrew Collins* http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/plaque.htm

<< It was found during routine excavations at the 11,500-year-old site of Göbekli Tepe in southeast Turkey, but no one had recognised exactly what the carved lines on the small bone plaque showed. This was until Matthew Smith, a British telecommunications consultant living in Qatar, visited Sanliurfa Museum, which houses a large collection of portable objects found at the Pre-Pottery Neolithic (PPN) site of Göbekli Tepe, located around 8 miles (13 kilometres) away to the northeast. Smith recognised something that everyone else appears to have missed, this being that the little plaque – just 6 cm in length, 2.5 cm in width and 3-4 mm in thickness – bears on its upper surface two T-shaped features positioned side by side (see fig. 1). The context of the plaque’s discovery, i.e. at Göbekli Tepe, makes it clear these T-like etchings are pictorial representations of the familiar T-shaped pillars found in all the key enclosures uncovered at the site. >>

NOT MATTHEW SMITH, NOR ANDREW COLLINS SHOWED HOW THOSE SIGNS ARE RELATED TO WRITING ! So you are talking about the first pictorial signs of writing found in Gobekli Tepe without realizing, supporting or trying to prove that the “pictograms” as you call them, are related to writing. Because it is not just a single resemblance of signs, but multiple resemblances to later signs used in writing, this is an argument and support for the direct connection with writing.

I will not enter in what Collins say “debate over the axial orientation of the site’s main enclosures and any potential astronomical targets” because is highly risky, I enter a swampy ground . 

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Euphratean_languageProto-Euphratean is a hypothetical unclassified language or languages which was considered by some Assyriologists (for example Samuel Noah Kramer), to be the substratum language of the people that introduced farming into Southern Iraq in the Early Ubaid period (5300-4700 BC).”

We have later sumerian proto-writing=proto-cuneiform signs Me and Urudu wich has the T shape. It is possible that this icon were known much more earlier and signified something (had attached an meaning). If the shape remained unchanged throughout the time we are not 100% sure about significance.

From https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html Sign Me

https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns/ME~a.jpg

And sign urudu

https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns/URUDU~a.jpg

Both sumerian signs has meanings related to divinity and power

From https://is.muni.cz/el/1421/jaro2013/PAPVB_13/um/40794229/Halloran_version_3.pdf me, mì; ñe: n., function, office, responsibility; ideal norm; the phenomenal area of a deity’s power; divine
decree, oracle; cult
[ME archaic frequency: 363; concatenates 2 sign variants].
v., to be; the Sumerian copula; to say, tell

From https://www.angelfire.com/tx/tintirbabylon/ME.html << ME(1) is a Sumerian word (perhaps pronounced “may”) that has no single exact English equivalent. Samuel Kramer explained Me as the “fundamental, unalterable, comprehensive assortment of powers and duties, norms and standards, rules and regulations, relating to the cosmos and its components, to gods and humans, to cities and countries, and to the varied components of civilized life.” The usual Akkadian translation is parsu, “rite, ordinance, office.” Although the Me in general are referred to frequently in hymns, prayers, and stories, few specific Me are mentioned. We are told that there are 7, 50, or 3600 Me. These numbers are collective numbers symbolizing completeness and totality. Me was obviously a fluid concept that could apply to any type of power, Above or Below.>>

From ON ТНЕ ORIGINAL МEANING OF SUМERIAN МЕ (lmages of Weltanschauung and the Methods of Тheir Study) V.V. Yemelyanov <<The article discusses the problem of translating and interpreting Sumerian МЕ bу means of the Old Babylonian cuneiform vocabularies and the Neo-Sumerian Gudea texts. The main supposition is that the word was derived from the verb МЕ «to bе apparent, visible» and its original meaning was «will to live». >>

From oldeuropeanculture on Twitter: “Sumerian word for copper is …https://twitter.com › serbiaireland › status https://www.academia.edu › Sumerian urudu and Kartvelian Metallurgy.pdf | Anna … Thus, the ultimate meaning of the Sumerian urudu is uro ‘a big hammer+ du ‘head, chief’, i.e. ‘the chief big hammer’, ‘the leading big hammer’...

One must agree that T shape is the shape of a hammer wich indeed is inspiring power, does not matter, of metal or stone.

From ANCIENT METAL NAMES AND THE FIRST USE OF METAL Janos Makkay https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/?tab=wm#inbox?projector=1

<< …. On the other hand, Mallory believes that there was a contact relation of Sumerian with PIE and the classic example is Sumerian urud and PIE *reudh-. In the opinion of Gamkrelidze and Ivanov the stem *reudh- is of interest confirming the connection between metallurgy in the PIE period with that of the ancient East. (As it is well-known, they locate the PIE homeland to the area of eastern Turkey, i. e. near to the supposed – primordial – source of the stem urudu). According to Diakonov (who also locates a very early, common PIE – -Prot-Kartvelian homeland to the east Anatolian area) a meaning of ‘red ore’ would be more correct, but in his opinion Sumerian urudu probably comes from a pre-Sumerian substratum. These opinions adequetely reflect the uncertainties surrounding the “ethnic” origins of urudu. E. Risen, for example, did not deal with the origin of the borrowed IE root *reudh-. E. Meyer argued that urud/u was borrowed from an – unidentified – Mediterranean language both into Sumerian and also Indo-European dialects. G. Devoto’s opinion stands close to Meyer’s for he suggested that the counterinfluence of non-IndoEuropean peoples could be felt on the peripheries of Indo-European seats, in cluding also the Balkans. In the Balkans these counterinfluences probably oc curred during the Neolithic revolution and are reflected in the distribution of cereal names as well as in the adoption of – – Mediterranean or Sumerian – -urud/u among the Indo-Europeans.
There is at present only one possibility for solving these contradictions, especially in view of the fact that evidence for the oldest copper metallurgy is at present known from the Euphrates region, namely from Cayönü Tepesi.
In 1944 B. Landsberger pub lished two important studies in the scholarly journal of the Ankara University. On the basis of the old city names of Mesopotamia such as Urim, Uruk, Larsam, Adab, LagaS and Zimbir he
reconstructed a substrate language which he called Proto-Euphratic. In northern Babilonia, on the other hand, on the evidence of divine names such asDagan, Zambomba, Amba, as well as Шаг and Adad he concluded that before the arrival of the earliest Semites the area was settled by another original population that differed from the Proto-Euphratians. These people he held to be identical with the original population of Assyria, northern Mesopotamia, and possibly also Syria, whom he called Proto-Tigridians. This probably coincides with the sug gestion of I. J. Gelb in 1961: “… the protopopulation of North Syria was of un known lingustic affiliation (that is, non-Semitic and non-Hurrian)…”.24
Landsberger made an attempt to isolate within the Sumerian vocabulary. …..

… Only in the Turkish variant of Landsberger’s study is the possible origin of the word URUDU discussed which according to Landsberger is neither Sumerian, nor Proto-Euphratic, but was borrowed to the PIE. Theese contradictory hypotheses (to which further confusion was added by P. Kretschmer who assumed a Bell Beaker /¡/contribution to the history of the stem *reudh- , *roudhom ‘red metal)26 can be resolved if we assume that the expression URUDU ‘metal, red ore, copper’ can only have originated from an area where extensive copper metallurgy can be documented already prior to the fifth mill. В. С. and from an area which presumably was not the prehistoric seat of Protosumerians and/or early Semites. Since an IE and Semitic etymology for the word can be rejected out of hand, and a Sumerian etymology is most unlikely, a substrate similar to the Proto-Euphratic or Proto-Tigridian is to be easily assumed. It is the latter which for geographical reasons corresponds best to the presently known location of very early (or earliest) copper metallurgy,Cayönü Tepesi. The geographical position and very early (i. e. 8-7. mill. B. C.) dating of the copper industry in Cayönü opens up new possibilities to review the origins of IE and other stocks relating metal names from pre-Sumerian and Protosemitic sources. >>

Image, from Gobekli Tepe, The First Megalith http://antiquatedantiquarian.blogspot.com/2014/08/humanitys-first-megaliths.html?m=1

Farmers have been here for as long as anyone can remember, thousands of  years in fact. As a local farme… | Ancient writing, Ancient artifacts,  Ancient civilizations
Called the “Snake, Tree, and Eagle” stone, the true meaning of these markings are completely unknown

From https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html Sign Ban

sign Bir

sign Gal

Sign Zatu 644~b

Gobekli Tepe “porthole” slab =?= seelenloch/ soul hole

April 7, 2021

https://en.linkfang.org/wiki/Port-hole_slab#Port-hole_slab In megalithic archaeology a port-hole slab is the name of an orthostat with a hole in it sometimes found forming the entrance to a chamber tomb. The hole is usually circular but square examples or those made from two adjoining slabs each with a notch cut in it are known. They are common in the gallery graves of the Seine-Oise-Marne culture.

https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=de&u=https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seelenloch&prev=search&pto=aue Soul hole ( French dalle hublot ) is, after Abraham Lissauer, a name for an “entry and exit opening for the soul of the deceased”. [1]Heine-Geldern defines the term more narrowly as “… the opening made in the locking stones of so many megalithic graves .” [2] For Otto Höver , megalithic graves were “heavy spell housings against the demonic power of the living corpse and at the same time seats of the separated souls, for which a small opening – the so-called soul hole – was left in the stone structure as a precaution, where the anima could secretly slip in and out. ” [3]The term was used in archeology and ethnology , but is considered out of date. The German word “Seelenloch” is also used in English-language publications >> see also: https://www.wikiwand.com/nl/Seelenloch

================================

https://www.amazon.fr/Cygnus-Key-Denisovan-G%C3%B6bekli-English-ebook/dp/B075CN38NB << Soul Holes

Professor Klaus Schmidt, who headed excavations at Göbekli Tepe between 1995 and his untimely death in 2014, never passed comment on the site’s porthole stones, which appear in the two most accomplished enclosures discovered to date. He did, however, have something to say about the fragments of stone rings his team found scattered about the site–one of which has been pieced together and is on display at Sanliurfa’s archaeological museum. These are around half a meter (18.5 inches) in diameter and were positioned originally either in the ringwalls of now lost enclosures or in overhead ceilings. As to their function, Schmidt proposed they were seelenloch, a word in his native German language meaning “soul hole.” So what exactly are soul holes?

Form and Function

A large number of megalithic (that is, large stone) chambered tombs, or dolmens, from Ireland in the west to India in the east, have circular apertures cut into their entrance facades. Like the porthole stones at Göbekli Tepe, these bored holes are usually between 25 and 40 centimeters (10 to 16 inches) in diameter: too small for a grown person to pass through bodily. The porthole stones seen in Neolithic and later Bronze Age dolmens, which generally date to circa 3000–2000 BCE, could have functioned as a means of offering food and gifts to the spirits of human remains interred within the structures. Alternately, the apertures might have enabled further burials to be added, or, indeed, original interments to be removed.

Such ideas, however, are inadequate to fully explain the widespread use of circular apertures in a funerary context. For example, in India circular apertures appear in stone slabs used as entrances to cist burials, which were generally sealed beneath the earth following construction. Deliberately bored holes are seen also in ceramic urn jars found in cemeteries across Europe and Southwest Asia. These date to the Iron Age and later Roman times. The purpose of these holes was to provide a means for the release of the soul, the presence of dirt, or any other constrictions not being seen as a hindrance to the soul’s ability to leave its place of interment.

In a like manner, small doors or windows known as armen seelenloch, “poor soul holes,” were once incorporated into the walls of houses in the Austrian Tyrol. A number survive today, and there seems little question that their primary function was to allow the exit of a soul following death since these miniature doors were opened only when a death occurred in the household. The function of armen seelenloch has been linked with the porthole stones of megalithic monuments located in the same region, suggesting a continuity of ideas from the Neolithic age through to the present day. Almost certainly connected to the function of armen seelenloch is the fact that members of the Ojibway tribe, indigenous peoples of Canada and the northern United States, would bore a hole in a coffin so as “to let the soul go out and in at pleasure.” In a similar manner, hospital nurses in southern England upon the death of a patient would open the window nearest to the feet of a body so that the soul might escape. Very likely at least some of the porthole stones at Göbekli Tepe served a similar function, although instead of the exiting souls being used by the deceased, it was the soul or spirit of the shaman or entrant that was thought to exit this world using these circular apertures.

Shamanistic Practices

Shamanistic practices in various parts of the world incorporate the use of a symbolic hole, either in a rock, in the ground, in a tree, or in the roof of a yurt or tent. Their presence enables the spirit of the shaman to leave its physical environment and enter invisible realms described in terms as the Upper and Lower World. The Upper World was thought to exist in the sky; the Lower World beneath the earth. In addition to this, Siberian shamans are known to have employed the use of bones with holes at their center to begin to “see all, and to know all” and that this “is when one becomes a shaman.” In other words, pierced bones were used in ritual practices that involved the participant achieving an ecstatic or altered state of consciousness and then projecting his or her mind through the hole to enter unseen realms. Here they would attain otherworldly knowledge and enlightenment not normally accessible to those inhabiting the land of the living. So the presence of the pecked hole between the twin pillars seen on the carved bone plaque found at Göbekli Tepe indicates that during rites and ceremonies a person entering the site’s enclosures approached between the twin central monoliths and focused their eyes on the porthole stone. Very likely these holed stones formed a bridge, portal, or point of connection between the liminal realm created by the enclosure’s circular interiors and otherworldly environments thought to exist beyond the physical plane of existence.This was an important realization for it helped confirm the axial orientation of Enclosures C and D, which in both cases was toward the north-northwest, where both portholes stones are to be found. Yet why were both the twin central pillars and the holed stones oriented toward the north-northwests. >>

From First pictorial representation of Göbekli Tepe T-pillars found on tiny bone plaque Andrew Collins* http://http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/plaque.htm

SOUL HOLES Although the late Professor Klaus Schmidt, the head of excavations at Göbekli Tepe between 1995 and his untimely death in 2014, never commented on these holed stones seen in the two most accomplished enclosures uncovered to date, he did have something to say about the fragments of stone rings found at the site (one of which has been pieced together and is now on display at Sanliurfa Museum – see fig. 7).

Fig. 7. Stone ring found at Göbekli Tepe and now in Sanliurfa museum (picture credit: Andrew Collins).

These, he suspected, had been placed in the walls of now lost enclosures and might have acted as seelenloch, a word in his native German language meaning “soul hole” (Schmidt, 2012, 99).

A large number of megalithic dolmens of Neolithic and later Bronze Age manufacture, from Ireland in the West across to India in the East, have circular apertures cut into their entrance stones (see fig. 8). Like the examples at Göbekli Tepe, these bored holes are usually between 25 and 40 centimetres in diameter, too small to allow a normal sized person to pass through bodily. Portholes in megalithic dolmens could have functioned as a means of offering food to the internee. Alternately, they might have enabled further human remains to be added, or, indeed, original interments to be removed. Such ideas, however, are inadequate to fully explain the widespread use of holes in funerary situation. For example, in India circular portholes appear in stone slabs used as entrances to cist burials (Thapar, 2004, 95). Deliberately bored holes are seen also in ceramic urn jars found in cemeteries across Europe and Southwest Asia. These date to the Iron Age and later Roman times (Koster, 1983; Avetisian, 1999/2000). Apparently, the purpose of these holes was to provide a means for the release of the soul from its place of containment. In a similar manner, small doors or windows known as armen seelenloch, “poor soul holes,” were once incorporated into the walls of houses in Austria. A number survive to this day, and there is no question that their primary function was to allow the exit of the soul following death, each one being opened only when there was a death in the household (Schwierz, 2011). Their existence has been linked with portholes identified as seelenloch in megalithic monuments located in the same region (Lukan, 1979, 55). ………………….. ………………….. Some researchers of the ancient mysteries field have chosen to ignore this data and announce that the twin central pillars of key enclosures at Göbekli Tepe are aligned south, their twin central monoliths turned to face the rising of either the belt stars of Orion (Schoch, 2014, 54-55) or the bright star Sirius, (? CMa) (Magli, 2014). Both of these stellar targets have, however, been shown to be flawed (Collins, 2014, 77-80; Collins and Hale, 2014). What is more, the evidence available offers more compelling reasons for us to conclude that the key enclosures at Göbekli Tepe are oriented north, and not south. Chartered engineer Rodney Hale, working with the present author, determined that the mean azimuth bearings of the twin central pillars in Enclosures B, C, D & E targeted the bright star Deneb (? Cyg) as it set on the NNW horizon during the epoch of their construction (Collins, 2014, 80-82, and see fig. 10). That the setting of Deneb helped determine the axial orientation of these enclosures is verified in a new study of Göbekli Tepe’s astronomical alignments by Alessandro De Lorenzis and Vincenzo Orofino (2015)>>

Image, from https://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/arqueologia/gobekli_tepe08.htm

Göbekli Tepe - Who Built It, When, and Why? - A Preview to Genesis of the  Gods
Fig. 5.
Left, plan of Enclosure D showing position of holed stone
and mean azimuth of the twin central pillars.
Right, the holed stone in Enclosure D.
(Pic Credits: Rodney Hale/Andrew Collins
  • MY OPINION:
  • Pointing to Deneb (Cygnus) is consistent with sky-burial religion, Andrew Collins: ” The purpose of targeting a near-circumpolar star such as Deneb, located in the constellation of Cygnus, the celestial bird, was almost certainly to connect with the Milky Way, on which the asterism is prominently placed. In Eurasian folklore the Milky Way has long been seen as a road or river along which souls, often in the form of birds, journeyed to reach the afterlife (see fig. 11). For a full treatment of this subject see the author’s work elsewhere (Collins, 2006)”

Sky Burial’ theory and its possible origins at least – Damien …https://damienmarieathope.com › 2018/07 › sky-burial-…  According to most accounts of the Sky burial practice, vultures are given the whole body. Then, when only the … *Around 12,000 years ago Gobekli Tepe (Turkey)

  1. Pointing to Orion is consistent with faith in afterlife where soul rise to most monumental constellation visible on night sky, Orion. Out of this is for many ages and cultures, not only for hunter-gatherers it is “the hero/hunter” Following image, from

Göbekli Tepe: Turkey’s Stonehenge, But At Least 7000 Years Older 

  1. https://ro.pinterest.com/pin/383650461991428519/
Göbekli Tepe: Turkey's Stonehenge, But At Least 7000 Years Older | Göbekli  tepe, Ancient aliens, Ancient civilizations

I AM NOT MUCH INTERESED IN WHAT DEGREE THOSE HUNTER GATHERERS WERE INVOLVED AND WATCHED THE SKY. CAUSE THERE ARE CLUES FOR BOTH PRESUMED SOUL DESTINATIONS, CIGNUS/ORION. There are for and against arguments for every of it.

From Gobekli Tepe – my uninformed ramblings by knotmagick https://knotmagick101.wordpress.com/2019/10/20/gobekli-tepe-my-uninformed-ramblings/amp/?fbclid=IwAR1OLR5rIcQihkd6agPjXOnzIN2kLhzw2jqRWyLi1YQxgb6nah0LBO3emkA

<<The presence of birds in this context would have been very important to some societies, because of the links drawn between birds and the human soul. There is evidence around the globe, from the Middle East to North America, of the association between the souls of the dead and birds; everything from buzzards and eagles to the crane and ibis. We can see the same associations extending into Christianity, with the dove being the representation of the soul. For this reason, in conjunction with the supposition that sky burial was practised by the builders of Gobekli Tepe and the high number of crane and bird depictions found in enclosure D, Andrew Collins suggests that the worshippers of Navel Hill saw the spirits of their beloved dead in the form (or in the company) of birds and that their religious activities at the temple were intended to ensure a smooth transition from earth into heaven.

But where did the spirits go? based on the apparent orientation of the temples to view the southern sky the answer of “the stars” seems clear but which stars? And what did the worshippers see when they looked to those stars? If we accept that the surrounding pillars are human intercessors, who’s spirits had already flown to the stars, who enable us to connect with to the more than human beings represented by the t-pillars a question still remains; who are they?

Archaeologists, historians and conspiracy theorists alike consistently look to the southern stars for the answer, though the answers that they give you can vary quite a bit.

Star Gods

Cygnus – The Soul Bird

Andrew Colin’s, in his various books, notable the Cygnus Key and Cygnus Mysteries, argues that the temples focus is the stars of the Constellation of Cygnus, also known as the Northern Cross. Located just above the junction of the dark rift of the Milky Way Collins contends that the Constellation, the Latin name of which refers to a swan, has always been associated with birds of one form or another and that many ancient cultures around the world saw the Constellation as a point of transmigration for the soul. Collins draws evidence from cultures as far afield as North America and Ancient Egypt, claiming that Cygnus is the focal point for multiple ancient stone monuments across the globe.

Whilst Collins makes a very strong case for the motif of the bird as soul, going as far to link it to the early hominids known as the Denisovans, the connections that he makes in respect of Gobekli Tepe being aligned to the constellation do not stand up to scrutiny. For starters his dates do not match the archaeological evidence. The sighting stones do not align with the constellation when compared against the dates of construction as provided by radio carbon 14 dates. In fact there is quite a substantial margin of error to the extent that it really cannot be ignored. Collins would argue that his thesis with regard to Gobekli Tepe has been independently verified in 2017 by two researcher from the University of Edinburgh. This might sound like vindication for the Cygnus connection however when read the paper reads as though the two started from the premises posited in Collins 2014 publication and sought to evidence it themselves. Unfortunately this means that the two Engineers make the same errors in oversight that Collins does, completely ignoring the archaeological evidence available, which in 2016/7 more securely dated the construction of Enclosure D to a time when Cygnus could not have been in the sight of the portal stone.

This is not to say we should throw the baby out with the bath water. The concept of the flight of the soul in the form of a bird both as as an ancient motif and one which is repeated at Gobekli Tepe has strong merit, even if the stars proposed don’t quite align.

Orion – The Headless Hunter

A better fit, though not perfect, is the suggestion that monuments are aligned to the rising of the starts of Orion’s belt. That a hunter gatherer society would focus on Orion, chasing Taurus across the sky in an endless hunt, makes a great deal of sense, though it does assume that the builders looked to the constellation and also saw a hunter.

Whilst A and B do have some level of alignment to Orion the sighting is not consistent across all the excavated monuments. Perhaps as more enclosures are excavated and their alignments plotted a connection to Orion’s belt will be strengthened but for the time being it is possibly safer to assume that whilst Orion was important he was only part of the night sky show that the builders were attempting to capture.

Sirius – The Companion and Star Goddess

Just below the heel of Orion sits the star Sirius, known as the Dog Star by modern sky watchers it’s summer time rising in the southern sky heralds the so-called “dog days of summer”. The birth of a new star in the night sky, particularly one which proves predictable as it emerges over the horizon, is generally something of note which is why many archaeoastrononical alignments settle on the helical rising of one star of another. Though procession does, over time, move the point in the sky where the rising will occur it would appear to our ancestors that it rose and set in the same place consistently and only the observations of a dedicated few over many generations would notice that this was not the case.

orion_1_lg (1)
https://etc.usf.edu/clipart/3800/3821/orion_1.htm

Megalithic alignments with Sirius are as common as with Orion and Cygnus when such things are plotted, the most famous being the Orion alignment found in the Great Pyramid of Giza where the southern shaft exiting the Queen’s Chamber aligns with Sirius. Robert Bauval, Graham Hancock and Andrew Collins (to name just a few) maintain that this is a deliberate alignment of the “soul ascension” machine to enable the souls of royal women to ascend to the next world. Of course, this alignment is paired with a similar shaft in the King’s Chamber, aligned to the belt of Orion, and two northward shafts which would allow the descent of the souls in the northern walls aligned with major stars in the constellation of Ursa Major. The Sirius association between the Great Pyramid and the southern sky of Ancient Egypt in 2500 BCE can be debated long and hard, and a lot seems to depend on what star simulation program you chose to use, but if we accept it as a clear and proven fact what does this mean for Gobekli Tepe? Were the Egyptians echoing a much more ancient association between Sirius and the Soul laid down into a collective memory by the Hunter Gatherers of 9600 BCE? The archaeology does seem to indicate that this is the case. Of the sites excavated so far enclosures B, C and D all have port hole alignments which match the helical rising of Sirius at a time depth consistent with the secure radio carbon 14 dates associated with the construction deposits at the site. This would indicate that each of these enclosures were build with the rising star in mind as an important feature and that it continued to be factored in to even after temples were closed, back filled and then reconstructed in a different location on the Tell. Whether or not all of the un-excavated enclosures will show the same alignments and associations remain to be seen but as work continues we will surely find out.

This theory does have its detractors however, most notably Andrew Collins and Robert Hale. They maintain that Sirius, despite its rising status, would not be visible to its declination at the dates proposed and would therefore not be available to sight the construction of the monument but that it would be of little interest to the builders, so attention should be paid to the north. Whilst a valid argument it assumes two things. One – that little to no process of observation occurred in advance of the construction of Gobekli Tepe and that construction was spontaneous. This is consistent with Collins belief that the builders of Gobekli Tepe were influenced to build as they did by the Denisovans human species based on their savant like knowledge which far exceeded that of any other human race and the alignments were “downloaded” into the builders culture from elsewhere. We known from later cultures that sky watching was the main night time activity and there is every evidence that the same was true in this case. Even if the rising is not visible initially there is no reason to assume that the sky watchers were not capable or observing the angle of rising and reverse plot it to its rising point on the horizon. Then we come to the second issue – the assumption that the rising would not be visible. In our modern experience we see very little of the night sky, particular on the horizon, due to light pollution. There are very few places where it is possible for us to get a true sense of the majesty of the Milky Way or the brightness of the stars at night without the horizon being blurred by some degree of light pollution. The same would not have been true in Mesolithic Turkey and it is likely that the rising of Sirius would have been visible, if faint, and expected by those who have spent many generations observing the movements of the star.

It is important to keep in mind that Sirius is consistently considered a companion star, with Orion featuring along side it as is the case in the Pyramid of Giza. There are echos of twin deities being associated with the evolution from a nomadic way of life to one associated with agriculture and animal husbandry as far back as the Sumerian. In the story ‘Debate between Sheep and Grain’ two sky beings (god’s) located on a hill discuss whether or not to share with mankind the knowledge of grain and domestication of animals.>>

BUT I AM CONFIDENT THAT ORION CONSTELLATION WAS ENOUGH BIG AND VISIBLE TO BE NOTICED FOR TENS OF THOUSEND YEARS BEFORE, EVEN IF IT WASN’T STUDIED CLOSELY.

GOBEKLI TEPE AND ALL RELATED SITES WERE HIGH DEVELOPED CIVILISATIONS AND PROBABLY PRECURSORS OF SUMERIAN CIVILIZATION

From Temple of Sumer https://www.facebook.com/TempleofSumer/posts/blessed-du-ku-from-temple-of-sumer-the-month-of-the-sacred-moundholy-hills-and-s/833633270129967/ << Blessed Du-ku from Temple of Sumer! “The Month of the Sacred Mound” Holy Hills and Sacred Mountains – The Foundations of the Duku Festival Holy hills and sacred mountains permeate much of Ancient Near Eastern Literature, from the earliest cuneiform tablets, all the way to their central place in Biblical scripture. From the image of Moses, standing on top of Mount Sinai, receiving sacred cuneiform tablets from God, giving deified Hammurbian laws to mankind; to the image of the Prophet Elijah, standing on Mount Carmel, asking his God to prove himself more powerful than Baal; and all the way on to the image of Jesus giving the sermon on the Mount. Mountains have always had great significance in both Jewish and Christian literature, since they are seen as being “closer to God” who dwells where the Heavens meet the sky. As a result of this idea, we often see God bestowing his divine wisdom from a mountaintop in scripture. These are concepts and central motifs which stretch back to the earliest times, to long before the Bible was set to parchment, and long before the Patriarch Abraham first began his journey from the Sumerian City of Ur, all the way back to a time when civilization was just beginning. For it was said that upon this Sacred Mound, “the ḫursag̃” (hill) of Heaven and Earth, that the ancestral Gods were created. In the earliest literature, the Sumerian poem ‘The Debate between the sheep and the Grain’, dated to the 3rd millennium BC, we are given the creation myth telling of the Sumerian ‘Edin’, meaning ‘steppe’, the place where the Anunna Gods were first created. This hill was situated at the point where the Heavens rested upon the Earth, and where mankind were given their first habitat. This sixty one line myth was set to stone over two thousand years before the Bible was even written, and before the “Garden of Eden” was even a concept. Later in time, from Third dynasty of Ur period (2200BC) onwards, we would find the term ‘Edin’ rephrased to ‘Hursag’ meaning ‘hill’, or in some cases ‘tillu’ in Akkadian, a term that was widely used to describe pre-historic tell mounds. In ‘Riches Hidden in Secret Places’ the acclaimed Assyriologist Jeremy Black noted that the Sumerians, unlike the scholars of today, had no interest in where their people had come from, and rarely wrote about it in their literature. Their Gods were Gods of civilisation, intent on bringing order to the universe, and civilisation to the society in which they served. Because of this, the Sumerians themselves were an incredibly forward looking people, focused on ingenuity and invention, and working towards a better tomorrow, rather than looking back to their past. On the other hand, the Sumerians knew they had not inhabited the earth since the very beginning of time, and that there had been a time before civilisation, when the very first men had lived in an uncivilised state like the animals, which was possibly the inspiration for Gilgamesh’s Enkidu. The Sumerians understood that civilisation had been a much later development, and it fascinated them to speculate on how the world had come into being, and how things has been at the beginning of time. In ‘The Debate between the sheep and the Grain” we see the Holy Mound take centre stage, as it was set as the birthplace Of the Anuna Gods at the time before sky and earth were separated. The Anuna Gods were ancient Gods from a time before recorded history. They were Gods that during the Sumerian period, and into the late Akkadian period were portrayed as seven judges who sit before the throne of Ereshkigal in the Underworld, their primary function is to decree the fates of humanity. During the Old Babylonian period, the Anuna were believed to be the chthonic deities of the Netherworld. In the ‘Curse of Akkad’ the Sacred Mound is also described as the resting place where the great ancestors of the Great God Enlil, En-duku-ga the Lord of the Sacred Mound and Nin-duku-ga the Lady of the Sacred Mound. These primordial gods even predated Enlil himself, and Enlil is the first born son of An and Ki. They may be the parents of one of Enlil’s parents, or they may go even further back. Jeremy Black theorised that at the time of writing this myth, the Sumerians lived in a land surrounded by these tell mounds, and knew they were the ruined habitation of their most ancient ancestors, and possibly even the Gods themselves ancestors, which fuelled their mythic imaginations. Although Sumer emerged as a complex civilisation between 5500BC to 4500BC, it is clear that there had been inhabitants in the land between the rivers long before that point back to Neolithic times. We call these early inhabitants the proto-Euphrateans, or Ubaidians, and they had left many markers behind. Many of these early inhabitants were probably very ancient ancestors of the Sumerians themselves, although before that point in time they were not classed as ‘civilisations’. The term ‘civilisation’ only comes into play with ‘recorded history’, and when characterized by a series of set markers, of which include urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment, and symbolic systems of communication such as complex writing systems. So, while the Sumerians were the first true civilisation to fit all of those criteria, their ancestors had probably already lived in this area, and its surrounding areas, for millennia before this point. Jeremy Black went on to state that: “The imagination stimulus for the idea of a single Holy Mound -a dul or tell- must have been the numerous ruin mounds that dot the surface of the Mesopotamian plain, with evidence of ancient habitation. Nobody lived on them, but you only have to investigate them cursorily- if your village is next to one and you stroll up there of an evening- to realize, from the ceramic remains and the occasional skull and bone, that they had been inhabited in the past. But by whom? The mythic imagination tells us that this is where the gods lived in the most distant past, with their feet on the ground but close to the sky. A mythic image or metaphor such as the Holy Mound, then, is a single cosmic location derivable from generalized elements of the landscape, such as uninhabited ruin mounds, that are multiple and ubiquitous.The acclaimed German archaeologist and pre and proto-historian Klaus Schmidt firmly believed the original ‘Duku’ that was written of in ‘The Debate between the sheep and the Grain’ was none other than Göbekli Tepe, the ancient Neolithic mountain sanctuary dating back to around 9130BCE. He believed that the poem itself was a cultural memory of ancient site, and a mythohistorical narrative from the time when mankind moved from being predominantly hunter gatherers to a time of permanent settlement. It’s worth considering that the site of Göbekli Tepe is situated in what would one day be classed as Northern Mesopotamia, and the site itself was only seven days walk on foot from what would one day become the Sumerian City of Ur in Southern Mesopotamia, and even closer than that when travelling by donkey, or by boat down the River Euphrates. It’s probably no coincidence that this buried and abandoned “ancient city” was situated in a hilly and mountainous environment just like in the Sumerian myth, and being what many believe to be birthplace of animal husbandry from the archaeological evidence at the site, fits the myth perfectly too. What is even more compelling however is the creation of grain that takes place in the myth, especially when you consider the ancient einkorn wheat, found in the hills surrounding the Göbekli Tepe, just happens to be the single genetic ancestor of every strain of wheat grown and eaten across the earth today. During the Third Dynasty of Ur period, and over seven millennia later, the Sacred Mound had taken on a symbolic representation during the Duku Festival, as a likeness of it was built in harvested grain in the lead up to the religious holiday. This new meaning for the term ‘Duku’ seems to have caused confusion among scholars, as while most academics held to the Sacred Mound as a historic locality, others such as Thorkild Jacobsen, who read texts detailing the construction of this symbolic depiction saw its origin as a “plastered-over pile of harvested grain”, and concluded that the Duku must have been some sort of underground storage. However as practitioners of the Sumerian religion we sometimes have the luxury of seeing hidden meanings where perhaps the academics are too focused on literal depictions in the text, and as any who are well versed in the concepts of sympathetic magic will attest, in this case the laws of similarity are obvious in their apparency. We can see from the method of construction of the walls of this grain ‘Duku’ are incredibly similar to the construction of ancestral tells, together with the harvest it contains, the offerings of milk it is given, and offerings of dozens of lambs prepared, all tie in intimately with the myth ‘Debate between Sheep and Grain’ and it’s links to the mythic Sacred Mound, on which the Gods were given life. Because of this I would say this grain Duku came later, and was the development of a symbolic construction originally created to be as part of the cultic activities, which then later developed from there to the idea of grain silos…… …… Although the Festival of the Sacred Mound was generally seen as a great time of celebration and feasting, we must also be mindful that is had sombre undertones, as it was also a time when the Gods of the underworld were paid homage, and the ancestors were remembered, so we should also remember to pay our respects to those we have lost in the past, and in doing so pay tribute to their achievements. Though those memories, those we have lost will never leave us.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ RELATIONS, ICONS AND SIMILARITIES WITH THE LATER SUMERIAN CULTURE

1.Porthole slab

Göbekli Tepe: Turkey's Stonehenge, But At Least 7000 Years Older | Göbekli  tepe, Ancient aliens, Ancient civilizations

has the shape of proto-cuneiform signs GA2 :”basket,box”

https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns/GA2~a1.jpg

and of the proto-cuneiform and cuneiform sign Ku

https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns/KU~a@t.jpg

from Du-Ku “Holy Mound” where proto-cuneiform sign Du is exactly a mound

https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns/DU6~a.jpg

2. Meaning of Ku is “pure, holy

Ancient Near Eastern Temple Assemblies: A Survey … – COREhttps://core.ac.uk › download › pdfPDFby JA Bloom · Cited by 2 · 254 pages · 26 MB — The bulk of this thesis consists of a compilation of Akkadian and Sumerian primary source material which … Note the adjective ku (“pure“, “sacred”, “holy“),


Sumerian Lexicon – IS MUNIhttps://is.muni.cz › PAPVB_13 › Halloran_version_3
PDFby JA Halloran most important words in Sumerian had their own cuneiform signs, … kug, : n., silver; precious metal; money; noble (ku, ‘to base, build

3.The same shape are the chinese ideograms for Sun and Moon

Chinese Symbols for Words: the Chinese Characters.
https://lh3.googleusercontent.com/proxy/2sbm5S7rV798RbndEU_7jgzUWogm0kbSdA_SwxdOgLizUgqY4y25WqIKCASbhI8ZkpfxlUbiAwz10JJRnhD0EI9Vxn0GmzNqTNpP6Ok5cKjHsnPyVihWrNDqOcWEv4F03Ieh7fF4rxH_2cKL

https://www.thoughtco.com/chinese-character-profile-ri-sun-2278366 The character 日 is a pictograph depicting the sun. Its earliest form was a circle with a dot in the center, and four rays extending from the circle.

日-oracle.svg
Oracle bone script: Ri (sun) https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/44/%E6%97%A5-oracle.svg/60px-%E6%97%A5-oracle.svg.png

4. Possible sumerian proto-cuneiform sign Ku and chinese Ri (sun) had at the origin the Orion constellation shape ?.

Using a Star Chart
https://people.astro.umass.edu/~arny/constel/orion_pic.jpg
April | 2018 | Tartaria tablets
The Cross, the Cup, and Orion - Gary Osborn
http://garyosborn.moonfruit.com/communities/2/004/005/471/112//images/4586409613_318x500.jpg

5.The minoan sign for bronze and archaic greek He(ta) from Helios have the same shape.

======= From damienmarieathope.com ===================

Sky Burial” and its possible origins at least 12,000 years ago to likely  30,000 years ago or older. | Damien Marie AtHope
'Sky Burial' theory and its possible origins at least 12,000 years ago to  likely 30,000 years ago or older. | Damien Marie AtHope
Sky Burials: Animism, Totemism, Shamanism, and Paganism | Damien Marie  AtHope

ANOTHER BOGUS PALEOLITHIC STAR MAP – THE ACH VALLEY TUSK https://rockartblog.blogspot.com/2018/11/another-bogus-paleolithic-star-map-ach.html


The Ach Valley Tusk is a piece of mammoth ivory, recovered from Geißenklösterle Cave near Ulm, Germany, that has a human figure carved into one side and a series of 86 pits or notches cut into the other. Rappengluek identified the human figure as a star map representing the constellation Orion. ……. All in all, this Orion figurine is the most egregious of Rappenglueck’s claimed identifications of Paleolithic star maps, and I find it totally unbelievable.

Peter Faris https://rockartblog.blogspot.com/search?q=Gobekli+Tepe

Gobekli, Karahan Tepe cupules

April 5, 2021

See Cupules Definition, Description & History of Cupule Rock Art. http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/prehistoric/cupules.htm (PDF) Cupules – ResearchGate https://www.researchgate.net › 281317650_Cupules

From Cupules—- the oldest surviving rock art ROBERT G. BEDNARIK https://originsnet.org/Bednarik%20cupules%202002.pdf

<< Cupules (Fig. 1) are the earliest surviving rock art we know about in the world, but this does not necessarily make them the first rock art produced.The oldest rock art we know about in every continent are linear grooves and cupules, especially the latter. It can date from Middle and even Lower Palaeolithic times in the three Old World three continents, so it is very considerably older than the celebrated Upper Palaeolithic art of south-western Europe. This has become evident despite the considerable bias against such forms of rock art, which have often been ignored by researchers, misunderstood or explained as utilitarian rock markings.However, cupules are such a ubiquitous feature in world rock art that they were made in many periods, and considerable experience is required to estimate their age (Bednarik 1997a, 2000). Numerically they are probably the most common forms of surviving rock art in the world, and they can be found not only in very early and archaic traditions, but also in very recent ones. In India, for example, cupules occur in the Pleistocene, but most are from the Holocene, and they were made from Acheulian to Historic times. In many parts of Europe, cupules are particularly numerous in the Metal Ages. It is therefore false to assume that cupules are always an indication of archaic traditions.
Purpose
It is also very doubtful that all cupules were made for similar purposes, and it is even possible that some of those found on horizontal surfaces were used for some utilitarian process. However, there are distinct differences between cupules and grinding hollows. The latter occur on near-horizontal surfaces only and are well over 10 cm in size, whereas cupules are frequently found on vertical walls and rarely exceed 10 cm diameter.

================== Natufian culture was the culture wich just was before PPN Gobekli Tepe From Feeding the Living, Feeding the Dead: The Natufian as a Low-Level Food Production Society in the Southern Levant (15,000-11,500 Cal BP) https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Early-Natufian-agro-technological-system-el-Wad-Terrace-1-WCM-2-5-deep-bowls-6_fig4_347439244 <<The Natufian culture is generally accepted as having been a hunter-gatherer’s society positioned on the “threshold of agriculture.” This is based on the culture’s sedentary nature and the numerous plant processing tools-sickle blades and ground stones-it had created and used, but preceding plant domestication by thousands of years.>>

Early Natufian agro-technological system, el-Wad Terrace: (1) WCM; (2-5) deep bowls; (6) small oval threshing floor (30 cm long scale).

From Resonance at Göbekli Tepe, Turkey Göbekli Tepe Hieroglyphs by Alex Putney 

and images:

Göbeklitepe için 230 fikir | arkeoloji, tarih öncesi, antik tarih
Gobekli Tepe Post Holes | Göbekli tepe, Ancient near east, Ancient  civilizations
Göbekli Tepe'ye beton döküldü” paylaşımına Bakanlıktan açıklama - Yeşil  Gazete

The function of large cupules has eluded researchers for many years, and cannot simply be grinding holes since they are found in great numbers marking vertical wall surfaces as well as horizontal surfaces. >>

Eugen Rau: If large diameters ,larger than 10 cm could indicate as possible grinding purposes, they are too many, one beside another and vicinity of large basins are indicating fertility-increase rituals and rain related ?

https://books.google.ro › books Theory in Africa, Africa in Theory: Locating Meaning in Archaeology Stephanie Wynne-Jones, Jeffrey Fleisher — 2015 · Social Science << But when normal rituals and medicines consistently failed and droughts … There are often many cupules because the rainmakers had to start again each time and make new ones.>>


Increase Ritual – Australia: The Land Where Time Beganhttps://austhrutime.com › ritual_increase

Karahan Tepe: Göbekli Tepe’s Sister Site – Another Temple of the Stars? https://www.academia.edu/8030198/Karahan_Tepe_G%C3%B6bekli_Tepes_Sister_Site_Another_Temple_of_the_Stars <<Karahan Tepe Northern Knoll
The exposed surface of this knoll marks the beginning of an extensive area of bedrock covered with groupings of deeply bored cupules, or cup marks, usually 15 to 20 centimetres (6 to 8 inches) in diameter and easily as much in depth (see fig. 5). Similar cupules are found on exposed bedrock at Göbekli Tepe, close to Enclosure E, the so-called Felsentempel (“Rock Temple”), and also at other Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites such as Başaran Höyük (Güler,Çelik & Güler, 2013, 295, fig. 11) and Hamzan Tepe(Çelik, 2010, 262, fig. 6), both located in the Sanlıurfa province. ……

Other, much larger holes, ranging in diameter from between 40 to 50 centimetres (15 to 20 inches),are also present within the exposed bedrock. At least three sets are placed together in pairs, giving them the eerie resemblance of dark eyes gazing up at the beholder, a fact that, regardless of their true function, seems deliberate (see fig. 6). In addition to this, we find a large basin cut into the bedrock, which is oval in shape and approximately 3 metres (9.85 feet) across its widest part. It probably functioned as a water cistern, although this is simply conjecture at this time (two similar rock-cut basins are to be seen close to cupule clusters at Göbekli Tepe, and another three exist at Hamzan Tepe, again near groupings of cupules, see Çelik, 2010, 262-3, Figs. 7/8).>>

From Rita Robert’s Blog Göbekli Tepe, Mother of Myths? https://spredtetanker.wordpress.com/2012/03/30/gobekli-tepe-mother-of-myths/

The shepherd and his family live in a small schack at the bottom of the excavation area, near the “parkinglot”. Just inside the stone-fencing there are several carvings in the bedrock. Two enormous holes, big enough to be used as pools, and along these houndreds of small circular holes of different sizes and placements dug directly in the rock.

Cupules are found at Gobekli Tepe also on portholes Image from https://ro.pinterest.com/pin/383650461991428519/

Göbekli Tepe: Turkey's Stonehenge, But At Least 7000 Years Older | Göbekli  tepe, Ancient aliens, Ancient civilizations

CUPULES: INCREASE, RAIN & FERTILITY-RELATED

Handbook of Rock Art Research – Page 371 – Google Books Resulthttps://books.google.ro › booksDavid S. Whitley · 2001 · ‎ScienceFound on every continent except perhaps Antarctica, cupules have been attributed to efforts to entice rain, promote fertility, and symbolize the transition to adult .

PDF) Cupules—- the oldest surviving rock art Cupules—- the …https://www.researchgate.net › publication › 251250562_…May 14, 2015 — rallel grooves into selected ‘rain rocks’ to increase. or decrease snowfall, and they pounded cupules to. induce rainfall and wind (Heizer 1953).

Research Issues in San Diego Prehistory – Cupuleshttps://www.sandiegoarchaeology.org › funct.cupule.htm

  1. Heizer (1953) noted that some northern California groups, including the Shasta, made cupules as “rain rocks” to control weather. — E. Breck Parkman (1992, 1993) 

A SHORT ETHNOGRAPHY OF CUPULEShttp://www.ifrao.com › uploads › 2018/01

Twyfelfontein Namibia – Conclusion 2 – Bradshaw Foundationhttps://bradshawfoundation.com › cupules_engravings

https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au › …PDF ORIGINS OF SEDENTISM – ANU Open Research de RD Wickham · 2019 — attired shaman figures engaged in rain- bringing ceremony

Imagining Rain-Places: Rain-Control and Changing … – JSTORhttps://www.jstor.org › stable

CUPULES ON TOP OF T-PILLARS LEAVE THE ONLY POSSIBILITY to be RAIN & FERTILITY RELATED Image, from SHRINE STONE PRESS https://shrinestonepress.com/cupules/ <<Cupules are an enigmatic style of rock art that is found universally throughout the entire archaeological world. Here in California they are known as “bedrock mortars,” a central part of the acorn grinding indigenous cultures that are well known here. Throughout the world cupules are commonly attributed to the work of ancient peoples and their “primitive” methods of food production, but there are currently no known methods to date them and they have been passed over for generations as little more than “curiousities,” barely worth a mention. It can be readily seen, though, that many of the cupules could possibly have some other unknown function, or perhaps even some other unknown age, that is yet to be revealed. For example, in a brief survey of a very few sites here in California one can observe that many of them would appear to be too small for any sort of food production and they can also be seen in groupings or arrangements that would seem to suggest something more. Many of the arrangements can also be found on the vertical sides of boulders where, once again, any efficient means of food production would would have to be questioned, if not ruled out. But what stands out again and again even more is that this form of rock art shows up at the most ancient, most enigmatic and the most sacred sites found all over the world. They appear in the most highly-ritualized and sacred ceremonial settings on every continent (and many islands) from the famous stone Moai of Easter Island, to the megalithic, Olmec heads of Mesoamerica, to the giant stone pillars of Göbekli Tepe, in Turkey, even possibly to the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. There are tens of thousands of other sites known to exist all around the world. Here in the following photos are a few sites that are found here in Sonoma County, California, as well as a few from my own travels abroad where I have been somewhat surprised to find them. And finally, I’ve included a few other photos of cupules from other important sites to be found around the world.>>

At Gobekli Tepe there is no water source in the vicinity !

From Cliff Richey 19. November 2017 at 2:17 https://www.dainst.blog/the-tepe-telegrams/2016/10/14/of-animals-and-a-headless-man-gobekli-tepe-pillar-43/

<<The Sun played an important role in the ascension of the deceased warriors. After death the warrior’s spirits descended into the great underworld (the sign made by the Large “T” shaped pillars) and were carried by currents or “the crisscrossing streams of water” (the Net of crisscrossing Serpents depicted by one pillar). Ultimately the spirits arrived back at the earth’s surface at a spring site or a pool of water (perhaps the cistern at Gobekli Tepe that is surround by the Triangular three cupules that indicate, female-spirits. especially when the cupules, female-water-spirits, are filled with rain water or water taken from the cistern) where the spirits wait for the Sun to take the water (evaporation) and the spirit up to the sky and Venus. The evaporation of the water from the cupules demonstrated the validity of the cosmology.>>


From Gobekli Tepe’s Pillar 18 Dissected Cliff Richey https://www.academia.edu › Gobekli_Tepes_Pillar_18_… <<The Tops of the Gobekli Tepe Pillars are covered with Cupules that are the sign for, moisture or wetness. It is composed of many (red) Triangular, female-spirit, signs. When it rained this combination of signs would become, the Horizontal Rectangle, the horizontal-place, positional, on the surface, holding, the female-water-spirits, as in bowls. The utility of these signs would be lost if the Pillars had been roofed over. The tops of the smaller “T” shaped Pillars are almost level with the surrounding surface of the ground. The meaning of the “T” as a gesture sign for the Large, the great, “T”, below, the great underworld.

……On the horizontal -place or surface are the (red) Cupules that in their overall Form indicate the sign for, moisture, and it is filled with the Triangular signs for, female-moisture-spirits.5 It seems that the concept is one where after a rain the Cupules are filled with water and become, female-waterspirits. At Gobekli Tepe Cupules and a Cistern are in close proximity to each other, There may have been some ritual that during dry periods, involved transfer of water from the Cistern to the Cupules in order to demonstrate evaporation (the ascension of the spirits in the water that was part of the ancient cosmology).>>

From Göbekli Tepe – the Stone Age Sanctuaries. New results of ongoing excavations with a special focus on sculptures and high reliefs Klaus Schmidt https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/294839319.pdf

Göbekli Tepe – the Stone Age Sanctuaries. New results of ongoing  excavations with a special focus on sculptures and high reli
Fig. 23. Enclosure B and its portholestone in centre (foto Irmgard Wagner, DAI).

https://www.facebook.com/983492441702514/posts/3671326896252375/ Also, I also believe from my research these cupules found at Gobekli Tepe and Karahan Tepe are a Natufian attribute, which hopefully I will be able to write about one day. …… #158 Here is my latest paper called ‘Gobekli Tepe’s Vulture Stone: Deciphering the Mysteries of the Vulture Stone by tracing the Zarzian and Natufian’s connection that effectuated the construction and demise of Gobekli Tepe.‘ In this document I will outline a connection between the elite Zarzian shamanic priests and their subjects the Natufians as those who built Gobekli Tepe. By mapping the origins of an ancient obsidian trade in the Anatolians and the Levant.

P R E L I M I N A R Y C O N C L U S I O N

Out of tens posibilities for purposes (see R.G. Bednarik list of all potential interpretations of cupules at the end of the page)…. we have at Gobekli and Karahan Tepe, two category/kinds of cupules: 1) not proper cupules, (“tacitas“) because diameter is larger than 2-10 cm (10-20-40cm…+ blarge basin 3m) To see the difference betwen cupules and tacitas, TACITAS OR CUPULES – Rupestrewebhttps://www.rupestreweb.info › tacitas Tacitas or cupules? an attempt at distinguishing cultural depressions at two rock art sites near Ovalle, Chile. Maarten van Hoek vanhoekrockart@parelnet.nl.

The significance of the morphometric and contextual variation in stone hewn mortars during the Natufian-PPNA transition in the southern Levant https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314164064_The_significance_of_the_morphometric_and_contextual_variation_in_stone_hewn_mortars_during_the_Natufian-PPNA_transition_in_the_southern_Levant <<Numerous explanations have been advanced regarding the use of ancient and recent bedrock features. However, while it is clear that bedrock features were indeed used for many functions including the processing of various substances, it seems that the most common utilization was pounding and pulveraizing food. In the Levant the bedrock features appear for the first time in Early Natufian sites around 15,000 years Cal BP, within the context of the transition to sedentary lifeways. The communities that adopted greater dependency on local resources brought about changes in various practices and aspects of both mundane and ritual behaviors.>>

The Function and Context of Natufian Stone Mortars: A Reply to …https://www.x-mol.com › paperRedirectAre the numbered specimens Natufian mortars, cup marks, or cupules? What do the “complexes” mean, and how were they defined? <<…’most of the Natufian bedrock features and boulder mortars as related, in a way or another, to food processing in its broader sense’ …..’some may have had a more ceremonial role than a mundane function’ >> In my opinion: THESE SHALLOWS/DIMPLES/BUCKETS HAD RATHER UTILITARIAN THAN CULTIC PURPOSES ( Possible rain-bringing rituals but rather for grinding purposes )

2) cupules proper ; under 10cm (2-10 cm). – on top of T-pillars – on portholes rims

Those were used in cultic rituals possible performed by shamans, with known (by them) purposes, e.g. increase/fertility rituals or unknown, forgotten even by them purpose but of high sacred value/importance. -cupules had a history of hundred of thousend years & purposes , meanings changed fergotten new one apperead then lost, forgotten, so could be e.g. : – for holy water, ancestor-funerary context, magical charms , symbolisms that are no longer recoverable , rain bringing=life sustenance=fertility, welfare/wellness/wellbeing ========================

The interpretation of cupules https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322343171_The_interpretation_of_cupules Robert G. Bednarik << A list of potential interpretations of cupules
The most commonly mentioned interpretations of cupules found in the literature could be grouped into a number of
classes, based on their purported uses.

  1. Unspecified or specified cultic or magic rituals
    1.1: Components of sacrificial altars.
    1.2: Human or animal blood sacrifices.
    1.3: Meeting places of witch covens.
    1.4: Magical charms protecting dwellings against witchcraft.
    1.5: Fertility rituals related to rockslides, which are thought
    to occur widely in Europe, Africa and South America.
    1.6: Ritual boring relating to the preparation of stone axes.
    1.7: Snake symbolism.
  2. Utilitarian preparation of substances
    2.1: Preparation of paints.
    2.2: Production of medicines of mineral or organic origins.
    2.3: Pounding of pigments of mineral or plant substances.
    2.4: Preparation of spices or foods.
  3. Mnemonic or record-keeping devices
    3.1: Measurement of time or as calendars. 3.2: Commemoration of major events, such as earthquakes. 3.3: Genealogical markers. 3.4: Recording of pregnancy months. 3.5: Records of stock animals. 3.6: Records of administrators or warriors. 3.7: Records of oaths, e.g. concerning land ownership.
  1. Elements of belief systems
    4.1: Impressions of hands, feet or knees.
    4.2: Use of cupules as receptacles of holy water.
    4.3: Use of the resulting mineral powder in amulets or talismans.
    4.4: Use of cupules in funerary contexts.
    4.5: Release of a life essence in the form of the resulting mineral powder.
    4.6: Use of the resulting mineral powder to induce pregnancy.
    4.7: To influence wind and weather.
    4.8: To attract or replace thunder.
    4.9: Use in reported supplication rituals in recent years. 5.Depiction of heavenly bodies 5.1: Depiction of star constellations. 5.2: Depiction of the Moon or moon phases. 5.3: Depiction of the Sun. 5.4 : Depiction of observations of supernovae. 6.Depiction of topographic elements 6.1: Elements of pre-Historic maps. 6.2: Referents to nearby topographic features, including springs, peaks, rivers and mines. 6.3: Aids in orientation. 6.4: Markers of land property boundaries . 6.5: Purported markers of deposited or hidden goods or treasures.
  1. Board games
    7.1: Use in mancala games.
    7.2: Use in boa games.
    7.3: Games involving the use of marbles or coins.
    7.4: Use in the board game huwais in Arabia.
    7.5: Use in the pursuit game mangura in the Congo. 8.Symbolisms that are no longer recoverable 8.1: Indeterminable cabalistic meaning. 8.2: Writing symbols or messages. 9.Receptacles for offerings 9.1: For offerings to deities or priests. 9.2: For offerings to goblins or lost souls. 9.3: For elves or spirits of nature. 9.4: For offerings by the sick. 9.5: To deposit supplication coins. 9.6: For offerings to flocks of birds to entreat them to spare the fields. 9.7: To place food tokens on the thresholds of churches. 9.8: For depositing coins or jewellery in cupules on stone crosses. 10.Specific symbolisms 10.1Depiction of vulvae, occurring with or without anthropomorphs. 10.2: To commemorate visit of a location. 10.3: Production of cupules with coins to convert these into luck charms.
  1. Other purely utilitarian purposes
    11.1: Use as mortars.
    11.2: Use as recess to keep door hinges in place.
    11.3: Cooking of food. 11.4 Use as recess for salt for animals, such as cattle or deer. 11.5: Receptacles for bird food or to allow butter to melt. 11.6: Illumination or marking of paths with the aid of oil and a wick placed in cupules. 11.7: Receptacles of the first berries of the season. 11.8: Receptacles for smoke or fire signals. 11.9: Use as lamps. 11.10: Production of rock powder for ingestion (geophagy)by humans or animals for medicinal purposes. 11.11: Receptacles for food and water for chickens. 11.12: Receptacles for pointed vertical posts in the construction of buildings. 11.13: Supports for the legs of beehives to prevent entry of specific insects. 11.14: Preparation for splitting of rocks. 11.15: Use to measure quantity of grain. 11.16: Use as lithophones. 11.17: Use to indicate local hydrology >>

Anlaşılması kolay: Göbeklitepe sütunları aslında neydi?

March 27, 2021

Scientists hypothesized that at 9.600 B.C. were not worshiped antropomorphic deities, but probably spirits. Ancestor spirits or otherwise. As a term of comparison, despite the enormous temporal distance, IF WE SUPPOSE THAT – Göblekitepe PEOPLES WERE DISTANT ANCESTORS OF SUMERIANS, AND SOME IMPORTANT ICONS AND THEIR MEANINGS LASTED THOUSEND OF YEARS, we could have had something like that:

PDF) The Transformations of a Goddess: Lillake, Lamashtu, and Lilith.
ResearchGate PDF) The Transformations of a Goddess: Lillake, Lamasht https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Wendilyn-Emrys/publication/337155280/figure/fig2/AS:823766137442312@1573412560586/figure-fig2_Q320.jpg

Merriam-Webster’ın Dünya Dinleri Ansiklopedisibooks.google.ro ›booksWendy Doniger, MERRIAM-WEBSTER STAFF, Merriam-Webster, Inc · 1999 · Religion \ la-‘mash-, tu \ (Akadian), Sumerian Dimme, MEZOPOTAMYA dilinde DİN, tüm dişi İBARLAR arasında en korkunç olanı, gökyüzü tanrısı ANU’nun kızı (Sümer: An).

Şimdi Dim-me’den Dim’in ne olduğunu görün: https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/%F0%92%81%B4?fbclid=IwAR0pgOjTAADZgkfrIP9K4OQ1cD53FngdGjEcrRQq24AfxLwkrutBNw8Kdbs Sümerce İsim (DIM)

direk, direk, direk
bağlama, düğüm, bağ

Ve daha önceki gönderilerden Ben: “ilahi güç / öz” ve “olmak / arı olmak”

Öyleyse, Dim-Me = “PILLAR-İlahi güç / ARI”

============== bir referans terimi olarak ========

Tanrı Dim-Me-ir: archive.org ›akış› 527757_djvu “Dil Olarak Sümer” in tam metni – İnternet Arşivi Bu dimir gerçek bir ES’dir. form = daha olağan dimmer (dim-me-ir) ‘tanrı.’ Bkz. S. v. digir ve dir = AN. Cf. Semitik ödünç kelime dimmerU ‘tanrı’.

Not. Dim’in 2 numaralı anlamını genişletmemek için kendimi sınırladım: 2. “bağlama, düğüm, bağ” Romanian: “legare, nod, legătură”

Easy to undersand: What were in fact Göbeklitepe pillars ?

March 27, 2021

Scientists hypothesized that at 9.600 B.C. were not worshiped antropomorphic deities, as “Urfa man”, but probably demons or spirits.

sciencepress.mnhn.fr › pdfPDF Animals in the symbolic world of Pre-Pottery Neolithic Göbekli … de J PETERS · Neolithic Göbekli Tepe, south -eastern Turkey: a preliminary … <<Given the anthropomorphic nature of the T-shaped pillars at Göbekli Tepe and the fact thatthese abstract monoliths bear representations of particular (sets of) animal species, it is temptingto interpret these megaliths as three-dimensionalrepresentations of shamans. ….. Some of these mono-liths exhibit arms and hands in bas-relief, sugges-ting that they represent anthropomorphic beings.It is not clear, however, what kind of beings thesestanding stones impersonate : do they representanthropomorphic gods, shamans, ancestors, stone spirits or perhaps even demons ? >>

Ancestor spirits or otherwise. As a term of comparison, despite the enormous temporal distance, IF WE SUPPOSE THAT : – Göblekitepe PEOPLES WERE DISTANT ANCESTORS OF SUMERIANS, AND SOME IMPORTANT ICONS AND THEIR MEANINGS LASTED THOUSEND OF YEARS, we could have had something like that:

PDF) The Transformations of a Goddess: Lillake, Lamashtu, and Lilith.

ResearchGate
PDF) The Transformations of a Goddess: Lillake, Lamasht https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Wendilyn-Emrys/publication/337155280/figure/fig2/AS:823766137442312@1573412560586/figure-fig2_Q320.jpg

Merriam-Webster’s Encyclopedia of World Religionsbooks.google.ro › booksWendy Doniger, ‎MERRIAM-WEBSTER STAFF, ‎Merriam-Webster, Inc · 1999 · ‎Religion\la-‘mash-,tu\ (Akkadian), Sumerian Dimme, in MESOPOTAMIAN RELIGION, most terrible of all female DEMONSdaughter of the sky god ANU (Sumerian: An), .

Usually scientists like John Halloran try to propose the etimologyes of sumerian words. for Dimmme I found nothing, even oposite: www.academia.edu › Kamadme_the… Rezultate de pe web (PDF) Kamadme, the Sumerian Counterpart of the Demon … Wiggermann noted that the name “Dimme” had resisted interpretation, but that the element written ME must be a phonetic indicator

Now see out of Dim-me what is Dim: https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/%F0%92%81%B4?fbclid=IwAR0pgOjTAADZgkfrIP9K4OQ1cD53FngdGjEcrRQq24AfxLwkrutBNw8Kdbs Sumerian Noun (DIM)

  1. postpillarpole
  2. bindingknotbond

And from posts before, Me:”divine power/essence” and “to be/beeing

So, Dim-Me = “PILLARDivine power/BEEING

GIDIM: ” GHOST” :

Ghosts in Mesopotamian religions – Wikipediaen.wikipedia.org › wiki › Ghosts_in_Mesopotamian_rel… The shades or spirits of the deceased were known as gidim (gidim 𒄇) in Sumerian, which was borrowed as eṭemmu in Akkadian. The Sumerian word is analyzed as a compound of either gig “to be sick” and dim3 “a demon”, or gi6 “black” + dim4 “to approach”

is.muni.cz › PAPVB_13 › Ha…PDF Sumerian Lexicon – IS MUNI de JA Halloran · Citat de 102 ori — and through bilingual cuneiform dictionaries of Sumerian and … v., to stand upright; to be straight; to be in order; to become … dìm: n., sickness demon; pole of a water lift.

So, Dimme could be also DemonBeing

Despite pillars exhibit arms and hands in bas-relief, sugges-ting that they represent anthropomorphic beings, and we are on the verge of appearing gods. Gods apperead later, after 2.000 years, 7.500 B.C. as you see at Kilisik:

Jens Notroff@jens2go Is it a human? Is it a #Neolithic T-pillar? Is it a composite figure? – No, it’s the Kilisik sculpture (… and thus maybe all of these). “A rather odd figure: The so-called #Kilisik Sculpture from #Adıyaman, #Turkeyhttps://dainst.blog/the-tepe-telegrams/2019/03/20/a-rather-odd-figure-the-so-called-kilisik-sculpture-from-adiyaman-turkey :

Image
https://twitter.com/jens2go/status/1104066286231973889 https://pbs.twimg.com/media/D1JtyS0XcAAlh5U?format=jpg&name=small

WE HAVE NO TRUE GODS BUT SPIRITS AND DEMONS. THEY INTERTWINE WITH HUMAN’S LIFE, THATS WHY EXHIBIT SLIGHT ANTROPOMORPHIC CHARACTERISTICS. ============== as a term of refference ========

God is Dim-Me-ir: archive.org › stream › 527757_djvu Full text of “Sumerian as a Language” – Internet Archive This dimir is a real ES. form = the more usual dimmer (dimme-ir) ‘god.’ See s. v. digir and dir = AN. Cf. the Semitic loanword dimmerU ‘god,’ .

Note. I limited myself not to extend the No.2 meaning of Dim: 2.”binding, knot,bond” Rom. “legare, nod, legătură”but..

Dimme= binding+ divine powers. This seem to be the meaning of a curse, greek katadesmos, when somebody’s fate is bond to an evil state.

cdli.ucla.edu › pubs › cdlpPDF Elementary Sumerian Glossary – Cuneiform Digital Library Initiative de DA Foxvog · Citat de 15 ori — Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary on the. Web. … dím to fashion, form, create, build; to make like, make into (-šč); to act

dimme: to make likebeing / Divine powers (Pillar made like divine power being)

The proto-cuneiform signs for dim are, from https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 165920760_505437117526813_875563478694490071_n.jpg
This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is 166349437_474408963700800_8638499227121425567_n.jpg

The proto-cuneiform sign for me is

OF COURSE WE HAVE NO AT GOBEKLITEPE BOTH DIM AND ME ICONS, ONLY ME:”T-shape” AND PILLARS OTHERWISE BOTH PARTS OF DIMME MOST TERRIBLE SUMERIAN FEMALE DEMON

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ even more documentation ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

studyres.com › … › Theology Anastas Shuke … the Sumerian terms for God, including AN, diĝir/dingir, dim3-me-er, šar/šaru, il/ilu, where most of them are expressed by the AN sign only.

www.macrothink.org › pdf_31PDF Yet Another Suggestion about the Origins of the Sumerian Language 23 oct. 2013 — Sumerian, the corresponding forms are. {diĝir; dim3-me-er; dim3-me8-er; dim3-mi-ir; di-me2-er} (deity, god, goddess)

https://baixardoc.com/documents/on-the-origins-and-continuity-of-sumerian-term-an-dingir-god–5cd0997012062

https://www.haaretz.com/archaeology/.premium.MAGAZINE-stalking-us-for-9-000-years-the-levantine-origins-of-the-undead-1.7184675

Reversing dim and me to medim , the rezult is a word with other meanings: oracc.museum.upenn.edu › cbd › sux TOC – Oracc emegir [SUMERIAN] N (24x) Old Babylonian wr. eme-gi; eme-gir₁₅ “the Sumerian language” … medim [LIMBS]

vasconica.dreamwidth.org › … ENGLISH – SUMERIAN DICTIONARY – vasconica ENGLISH – SUMERIAN DICTIONARY · Oct. 29th, 2019 02:20 pm … medim, [BOAT] peszesz, [BOAT] te, [BOAT] tugul, [BOAT] umbin, [BOAT]

++++ From https://damienmarieathope.com/2019/06/ritualistic-bird-symbolism-at-gobekli-tepe-and-its-ancestor-cult/?v=32aec8db952d ++++

Ritualistic Bird Symbolism at Gobekli Tepe and its “Ancestor Cult” a Sacred Sky Burial Relationship between Birds and Spirits of the Dead

Myths from several regions’ associate birds with the creation of the world. Sacred ideas of birds range from a creator role, to a symbol of life as well as relating to both death and rebirth. Birds are a common totem or believed spirit and relate to renewal, transformation, and ancestors as well. In this deity, spirit or ancestor role they may be seen as Bird People (people with the characteristics of birds) a common motif in myths. Also, birds are commonly associated with or relate to fertility, longevity, and life itself.

Carved skulls indicate that Gobekli Tepe, known for enigmatic monumental pillars carved with animals and shapes, was ancestor worship site.” 

Ancestor Cult: a ritualistic system of veneration, honor, and propitiation of the spirits of dead ancestors for the purpose of avoiding evil consequences and securing good fortune.”  

Ancestor worship: the custom of venerating deceased ancestors who are considered still a part of the family and whose spirits are believed to have the power to intervene in the affairs of the living.”  

Veneration of the dead, including one’s ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased. In some cultures, it is related to beliefs that the dead have a continued existence, and may possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living. Some groups venerate their direct, familial ancestors. In EuropeAsiaOceaniaAfrican and Afro-diasporic cultures, the goal of ancestor veneration is to ensure the ancestors’ continued well-being and positive disposition towards the living, and sometimes to ask for special favors or assistance. The social or non-religious function of ancestor veneration is to cultivate kinship values, such as filial piety, family loyalty, and continuity of the family lineage. Ancestor veneration occurs in societies with every degree of social, political, and technological complexity, and it remains an important component of various religious practices in modern times.”

Ancient Headless Corpses Were Defleshed By Griffon Vultures

Sky burial ( Animal Worship mixed with Ancestor Worship) is a funeral practice where a human corpse is placed on a mountaintop, elevated ground, tree, or constructed perch to decompose while be eaten by scavenging animals, especially birds.

On The Relationship between Birds and Spirits of the Dead ( See On The Relationship between Birds and Spirits of the Dead Christopher Moreman https://www.academia.edu/5112298/On_The_Relationship_between_Birds_and_Spirits_of_the_Dead

<<In a wide range of cultures, birds are symbolically connected with death in a number of ways. They are often considered harbingers or omens of imminent death. Some birds are thought to steal souls from people who are dying
or to act as psychopomps, carrying the souls of the dead to the “next world.” As the story above illustrates, there is also the belief that birds might somehow embody spirits of the dead. Ingersoll (1923) noted that the belief in birds as
“visible spirits of the dead” is “almost universal” ….. The symbolism of birds does not always focus on death, for
instance, but just as often relates to fertility, longevity, and life itself. Birds as Bearers of Divine Wisdom Birds as Psychopomps Birds of Life and Death The dual connection of birds with both death and life is common. Vultures, for instance, play a central role in funerary customs involving exposure of the corpse, such as in the Zoroastrian “tower of silence” and “sky burials” of Tibetan
Buddhism. This great carrion-eater is also mixed with the symbolism of life. Pre-Islamic Arabs recognized the vulture for its longevity, a quality it obtained devouring the life-blood of corpses; perhaps embodying deceased ancestors,
they devoured the sacrificial meals made in their names. In Tibetan folklore, through consuming the corpse, vultures are believed to bear the dead away to a transitory place in the sky before rebirth, and they are thought to be the earthly embodiments of the feminine divine principle, dakini. The Egyptian Mother goddess, Mut, is also associated with the vulture. Walker (1983) suggests that the association between motherhood and the vulture stems from a time before humans understood the role of men in the procreative process, believing that consumption of flesh led to the gestation of new life (p. 751). It was once thought that all vultures were female and were impregnated by the wind.In both China and Japan, cranes are said to carry the souls of those who have achieved immortality to heaven. Storks (deliverers of babies in not only European folklore but also that of the Sioux) and cranes are also among those birds most often symbolizing fertility and longevity. Some researchers have suggested that the stork’s migratory pattern indicating the return of spring may account for its association with fertility, but such a suggestion must surely apply to a wide range of birds. Cranes add to the avian migratory pattern a peculiar circular, hopping mating dance that is readily associated with various cycles of nature, including those of the seasons and of life and death. The dance has also been imitated by humans, being “common to rituals enacted in funerary labyrinth and tumuli in many parts of the world. As late as the eighteenth century the Ostiks of Siberia dressed their dancers in the skin of cranes. Birds Embodying Spirits of the Dead. That birds are often believed to actually embody spirits of the dead themselves “is a widespread and extremely ancient belief”. Friend (1883) describes Buddhist rice offerings made to ancestral “house spirits” that are eaten by birds, while similar rites are performed for crows in parts of India. Crooke (1896) describes how, in Northern India, owls and bats might embody “the malevolent dead” (p. 279). The Mongol Buryats of Siberia believe that their loved ones might return in the form of diving birds, and Aztec soldiers returned as hummingbirds. Some Pima Indians believe that at death the soul inhabits the body of an owl; an owl’s hooting portends death as it calls out for a soul to embody (Russell, 1908, p. 252). Similar beliefs can also be found in cultures not normally associated with reincarnation. Henderson says that in flight “the bird is the most fitting symbol of transcendence”, relating it to the spiritual journeys of shaman-types the world over. Experiences interpreted as “spiritual journeys,” “shamanic flight,” or “astral travel” are relatively common among across cultures. Even if not all cultures locate the world of the dead in a heaven, case studies on reports of out-of-body experiences (OBEs) describe, almost universally, the autoscopic witnessing of one’s body from above. It is likely that this phenomenon accounts for what Eliade (1968) termed “shamanic flight”. The noetic quality inherent in such experience can be strong enough to convince the experient of its objectivity despite empirical evidence to the contrary. Certainly, a relatively common human experience of seeming to fly in a non-physical body draws a personal connection to birds.The question of “transcendence” remains, however, as birds ascend while not necessarily transcending. The OBE offers the sense of transcending the confines of one’s body, and if one equates the sense of transcendent spiritual flight in the OBE to the natural flight of birds, then it is but one more turn to suggest that the latter’s flight might also be “transcendent.” To fully appreciate the connection to birds specifically, we must examine all aspects of their symbolism and not rely simply on an incomplete connection between ascension and transcendence. Henderson offers more details regarding the bird’s transcendent significance, explaining: “It represents the peculiar nature of intuition working through a ‘medium,’ that is, an individual who is capable of obtaining knowledge of distant events—or facts of which he consciously knows nothing” (p. 151). As illustrated above, birds are firmly entrenched as divine messengers. Likewise, shamanic flight largely aims to collect information from obscure sources. Flight, more than making a necessary connection to the afterlife, provides easy access to otherwise unattainable locations, and an elevated vantage point provides a definite informational advantage. Birds emblematize access to locations and knowledge that is difficult if not impossible for humans to access—the mystery of death fits this description. I contend that this last uncertainty is, in fact, the most profound one for all humankind. That birds can know the unknowable might account for the first of the three associations to death described above. If their flight allows them access to information from the unknown worlds, their access to these worlds might lead to the thought that they could bear souls away to these places. Neither the OBE nor the shaman’s flight involves being carried by a bird, however, so the connection remains symbolic. To make the leap of assuming that the soul becomes a bird, one must accept it only as a metaphor for the soul’s own ability to fly, or perhaps the sense that one has a soul that can. On the Symbolic Connection between Birds and Life
A final area of central importance is birds’ connection to birth, fertility, and life more generally. It is exactly this connection that best illuminates the birddeath archetype. Migratory birds are associated with the cycle of seasons. Sometimes they are lamented for causing the winter, as with the Swiss wax-wing above, but more often they are celebrated as bringers of the spring, as with storks, herons, or cuckoos (who so regulated the seasons that they’ve become ubiquitous timekeepers). Migratory patterns, like other naturalistic explanations, cannot explain everything, however, as not all birds have seasonal migrations. The vibrancy of some birds’ colors, the forcefulness of their songs, and the swiftness of their flights are all strongly suggestive of life’s vim and vigor.The greatest sign of birds’ generative character, however, is their eggs. Eggs are often central to creation myths the world over (Leeming, 2010, pp. 313-314). The Egyptian god, Seb, laid an egg that produced the sun; the Indian and Chinese creator-gods (Brahma and P’an lu, respectively) were born from cosmic eggs; and the African Dogon describe how Amma, the creator god, fertilized himself in the form of a great egg. Eggs are also widely considered aphrodisiacs. By extension, birds also influence the language of sex and fertility with various bird-related words sharing a sexual double-meaning across cultures. Birds clearly exemplify the vibrancy of life in many ways, but it remains to be explained why they also share an association with death.The practically universal associations between birds and both life and death stem from a deep-rooted human tendency to deny personal mortality. I do not mean to imply here that the woman with whom I began this paper was engaged in some form of willful self-deception about the death of her father; she was quite aware that her father had died and that the bird was not physically him. Despite this knowledge, however, she (in line with the long global tradition of associating birds with the dead) also felt that the bird was the person. >> Ritualistic Bird Symbolism at Gobekli Tepe and its “Ancestor Cult”  Bird People?

Ce semnificau perechile de stalpi centrali din incintele de la Gobeklitepe ?

March 21, 2021

Dupa cate am putut vedea, se pare ca nici-un cercetator din zecile care au atacat problema, nu s-a putut pronunta de o maniera clara si hotarata. Adica sa spuna clar ce reprezentau pentru locuitorii de la Gobeklitepe.Pentru ca la vechimea si perioada in care au fost construite parerea generala este ca nu aparusera inca zeitati antropomorfe. Cu totul alta ar putea fi situatia doar 600 de ani mai tarziu, (datata circa 9000 BC) cu “Omul din Urfa”. Acela chiar putea fi intr-adevar o zeitate. In plus este si antropomorfa.

Urfa Man: The 11,000 year old... - Origins Conference | فيسبوك
فيسبوك – Facebook Urfa Man: The 11,000 year old… – Origins Conference | ف https://www.facebook.com/OriginsConferenceLondon/posts/1044849728981197

Apoi daca erau spirite parerea generala este ca puteau fi spirite ale stramosilor. Chiar cu o seara inainte nu am putut adormi si vre-o doua ore in sir tin minte ca am avut o serie de idei valoroase din care sper ca incet-incet sa-mi reamintesc o parte.In orice caz, parerea mea este ca e vorba de spirit. La pilonul/monumentul tot de data mai tarzie, neolitic B, PPNB dupa neolitic A, PPNA tot in forma de T descoperit in Turcia la Adiyaman-Kilisik, se vede mai bine silueta umanoida (Din The First Adam, Androgyny, and the ‘Ain Ghazal Two-headed Busts “Neolithic B stone statue from Kilisik at the foot of the Taurus Mountains “) :

A rather odd figure: The so-called Kilisik Sculpture from Adıyaman, Turkey  – DAI Blogs

DAI Blogs
https://www.dainst.blog/a-rather-odd-figure-the-so-called-kilisik-sculpture-from-adiyaman-turkey/

https://www.dainst.blog/a-rather-odd-figure-the-so-called-kilisik-sculpture-from-adiyaman-turkey/ <<În acest caz, exemplul Kilisik ar reprezenta prima descriere feminină asociată cu sculpturile în formă de T. Deoarece descrierea nu are caracteristici sexuale clare, aceasta rămâne o posibilitate destul de vagă și ambivalentă, care cere cercetări suplimentare.>> IN SCHIMB PILONII CENTRALI DIN STRATUL III/PPNA DE LA GOBEKLITEPE dupa parerea mea REPREZINTA SPIRITE ! Imaginea, din https://voyageturkey.net/wp-content/uploads/sanliurfa_1-678×381.jpg

Gobekli Tepe: Zero Point of the Time and World's First Temple |  VoyageTurkey.Net

Dupa ipoteza mea, este vorba de un spirit care preceda cu mii de ani conceptul complex sumerian reprezentat de ME. Semnul/icoana in forma de “T” s-a pastrat si perpetuat mii de ani, reaparand mai apoi ca semn proto-cuneiform pe la 4.000-3.500B.C.. https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html Sign https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns/ME~a.jpg

Nota toate semnele proto-cuneiforme sumeriene au suferit in decursul timpului o rotatie de 90 de grade, asa incat sa nu ne necajim ca nu avem direct forma T.

Este adevarat, ca https://www.smithsonianmag.com/history/gobekli-tepe-the-worlds-first-temple-83613665/ <<Prapastia care ne separă de constructorii lui Gobekli Tepe este aproape de neimaginat. Într-adevăr, deși stăteam printre megalitii care se apropiau dornici să-și înțeleagă sensul, ei nu mi-au vorbit. Erau cu totul străini, așezați acolo de oameni care vedeau lumea într-un mod pe care nu-l voi înțelege niciodată. Nu există surse care să explice ce ar putea însemna simbolurile. Schmidt este de acord. „Suntem cu 6.000 de ani înainte de invenția scrisului aici”, spune el. „Există mai mult timp între Gobekli Tepe și tăblițele de lut sumeriene [gravate în 3300 î.Hr.] decât de la Sumer până astăzi”, spune Gary Rollefson, un arheolog de la Whitman College din Walla Walla, Washington, care este familiarizat cu opera lui Schmidt. „Încercarea de a scoate simbolismul din contextul preistoric este un exercițiu de inutilitate”.>>

Este conceptul oarecum mai rudimentar sau mai degraba incipient al acestui Me, pentru ca se va vedea ca inca din 9.600 B.C. avea o semnificatie complexa.La sumerieni, Me este esenta oricarui lucru,fapt sau fenomen care tine de viata practica,sociala si religioasa care guverneaza alcatuirea si desfasurarea lor si este de origine divina.

Din https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Me_(mythology) << În mitologia sumeriană, un Me (𒈨; sumerian: me; akkadian: paršu) este unul dintre decretele/hotararile divinitatii care este fundamental pentru acele instituții sociale, practici religioase, tehnologii, comportamente, moravuri și condiții umane care fac posibila civilizația, asa cum Sumerienii au înțeles-o posibila. Ele sunt fundamentale pentru înțelegerea sumerienilor a relației dintre umanitate și zei.>>

Pilonii nu reprezinta o zeitate anume si ca atare nu aveau un nume, cu atat mai putin unul concret. Nefiind o zeitate antropomorfa nici nu are aspect omenesc, ci reprezinta o entitate ceva mai abstracta fara o forma anume, cel putin fara o forma cunoscuta. Inchipuitiva ca putea sa reprezinte idea si spiritul vietii.Atunci au facut ca sa fie vizibil ca spiritul are legatura, tangenta cu fiintele si oamenii si de aceea au figurat asa foarte pe departe niste brate.La alti piloni si ideea de feminitate,procreere, totusi pilonii nereprezentand o zeitate ci “spiritul Vietii”.dupa unii cercetatori, Me inseamna dupa unii “legile divine”;”puterile divine”,iar dupa altii se traduce “Vointa de a trai” sau “Fiinta”. Este cumva firesc ca in mod periodic sa se adune sute de oameni la monumente, ei referintuse la pilon “a fi”, “fiinta”. Se pune problema daca chiar a existat semnul, inainte reprezenta tot sunetul me, apoi in ce limba, ce insemna me !? Dupa unii civilizatia imediat precedenta celei de la Gobekli Tepe a fost cea natufiana. A se vedea:NATUFIAN ORIGIN FOR AFROASIATIC?http://languagehat.com/natufian-origin-for-afroasiatic/?fbclid=IwAR10OppBacQvPe65bWDvy2iZQKQCwgKBiUxgvhtylqdzNjJSRQIVs8qtXjY <<The possibility of Natufians speaking proto-Afro-Asiatic, and that the language was introduced into Africa from the Levant, is approved by Colin Renfrew with caution, as a possible hypothesis for proto-Afro-Asiatic dispersal. Posibilitatea natatuenilor de a vorbi proto-afro-asiatică și de a introduce limba în Africa din Levant este aprobată de Colin Renfrew cu prudență, ca o posibilă ipoteză pentru dispersia proto-afro-asiatică. >> Altii zic si presupun Anatolia ca fiind locul de origine al familiei Indo-Europene. Oricum la baza tuturor sta presupusa limba nostratica. Toate cautarile si cercetarile mele in mare parte de natura lingvistica conduc la: ME = “esenta”; “puteri divine”; “a fi”;”fiinta” ;”eu, mie,meu,pe mine” ;”ai nostri”

is.muni.cz › PAPVB_13 › Mi…PDF Sumerian – IS MUNI have tried to include Sumerian within the hypothetical Nostratic … The Sumerian verb me “to be” can be used independently, but is most ..

www.jolr.ru › files › (5)jlr20…PDF Once Again on the Comparison of Personal Pronouns in Proto … de K Babaev · 2009 · Citat de 6 ori — person singular nominative *egHo(m) vs. oblique *me-. … coincidences, like Indo- European *me ‘me’ = Sumerian (Eme-sal) me ‘ id.’.

Talk:Sumerian language/Archive 1 – Wikiwand http://www.wikiwand.com › Talk:Sumerian_language › Arch.. <<Me – I, me; nostratic “ME, MI, -M” – I, me, 1st person; turkic “Men” – I.>>

books.google.ro › books The Nostratic Macrofamily: A Study in Distant Linguistic Relationship Allan R. Bomhard, John C. Kerns — 2011 · Language Arts & Disciplines *mé—/*mo— ‘more, abundant, considerable’: Old Irish mar ‘great’; Oscan mais ‘more’; Gothic mais … Sumerian me ‘abundance, plenty’.

Same sign 日 in three great ancient civilisations

March 16, 2021

In Sumer there are two similar signs : https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns/GA2~a1.jpg

..with the meaning https://www.sumerian.org/prot-sum.htm ga: n., milk (chamber + water).and https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns/KU~a.jpg

With meanings (between others): luminous, sacred/pure ==================================

In chinese there are also twoo similar signs:

Chinese character classification – Wikipediaen.wikipedia.org › wiki › Chinese_character_classificati… All Chinese characters are logograms, but several different types can be identified, based on … The earliest significant, extant corpus of Chinese characters is found on turtle shells and the bones of livestock, chiefly the … For example, the character 明; ‘bright’ is often presented as a compound of ; ‘sun’ and 月; ‘moon

For the sun/ri gliph

gw u65e5-g.svg

origin, see https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%E6%97%A5#Glyph_origin ================================

Gobekli Tepe, Anatolia/Turkey 9.600 B.C. :

Portals at Gobekli Tepe | Göbekli tepe, Ancient civilizations, Ancient  aliens
https://ro.pinterest.com/pin/353251164495504746/

Meaning : UNKNOWN =================================== This sign spread in entire World, as : Aegean (Cretan Hieroglyphic, Linear A and B) syllabogram and sign PA3, Old Canaanite/ Proto-Sinaitic sign Chet/Het/Heth, Phoenician and Old hebrew Chet, Etruscan /Ancient latin letter H, South-Iberian (turdetan) sign Ba, Venetic sign H, Archaic greek Heta/Eta, “Modern” latin letter H. ~~~~~~~ Hypothesis ~~~~ Possible explanations ~~~~~~~~~~~~ From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_(constellation) The earliest known depiction linked to the constellation of Orion is a prehistoric (Aurignacianmammoth ivory carving found in a cave in the Ach valley in West Germany in 1979. Archaeologists estimate that it is 32,000 to 38,000 years old. The distinctive pattern of Orion is recognized in numerous cultures around the world, and many myths are associated with it.

Theoretically I should start with the place and the sign attested as the oldest, Gobekli Tepe. Just a small problem: this does not help me at all as long as we do not know what it was used for and what interpretation it had. One of the very few supporting elements would be that in both Sumerians and Chinese the sign seems to be related to the notion of bright, luminous. This fact results from the Sumerian dictionary and from the fact that the Chinese symbols for sun and moon used together give meaning of bright. Now I have no choice but to intuit that for the pick-hunters from Gobekli spikes sign means still bright. But not necessarily obligatory. Because it could represent for them a part or portal of entry into the world beyond the sky. That gateway could be like in the Egyptian lore, constellation Orion.

Orion: The Hunter of the Night Sky - Night Sky Gaze

Night Sky Gaze
Orion: The Hunter of the Night Sky – Night Sky Gaze

It is natural that in the hunter-gatherer populations, the constellation Orion is associated exactly with a hunter, so in the Sumerians, with Gilgamesh. From The Ancient Epic of Gilgamesh and the Precession of the Equinox https://www.ancient-origins.net/opinion-guest-authors/ancient-epic-gilgamesh-and-precession-equinox-003957

The Ancient Epic of Gilgamesh and the Precession of the Equinox | Ancient  Origins

From https://www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/Gobekli.htm Nota. The same Orion constellation could be depicted at Gobekli Tepe by signs H si I.

Göbekli Tepe – the Stone Age Sanctuaries. New results of ongoing  excavations with a special focus on sculptures and high reli
Image from CORE [PDF]Göbekli Tepe – the Stone Age Sanctuaries. New results ofhttps://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/294839319.pdf
Wayne Herschel - Author - The Hidden Records - discovered 35 ancient star  map cases around the world showing human origins from one of three sun  stars near the Pleiades
Image, from http://thehiddenrecords.com/gobekli-tepe-taurus-bull
Gobekli Tepe's Cosmic Blueprint Revealed
Image, from https://www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/Gobekli.htm

Du-Ku = Hur-sarkmadaki E-Kur kompleksi arasında kutsal yer. E-kur kompleksi arasında kutsal yer (sütun bölgesi). Göbeklitepe tapınak kompleksi arasındaki sütun bölgesi.

March 16, 2021

Sümer tanrılarının çıkış yeri Göbeklitepe gibi görünüyor. Https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Du-Ku Du-Ku veya dul-kug [du6-ku3] ‘den kutsal bir yer için Sümerce bir kelimedir İlahi Yer, aksi takdirde kutsal metinlerde özel olarak tanımlanmış bir Tepe, Sümer tanrılarına ritüel tekliflerin yeriydi. Nungal ve Anunna, Gılgamış’tan yazılan bir metinde kutsal tepede ikamet ediyor.

Schmidt, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%B6bekli_Tepe’den << Göbekli Tepe’yi oluşturan grupların inanç sistemleri hakkında diğer türbeler ve yerleşim yerleri ile karşılaştırmalara dayalı spekülasyonlar da yaptı. Şamani uygulamaları varsaydı ve T şeklindeki sütunların insan formlarını, belki de ataları temsil ettiğini öne sürdü, oysa Mezopotamya’da geniş tapınaklar ve saraylarla ilişkilendirilen tanrılara daha sonraya kadar gelişmeyen tamamen ifade edilmiş bir inancı gördü. Bu, tarım, hayvancılık ve dokumanın insanlara, Annuna tanrılarının, bireysel isimleri olmayan çok eski tanrıların yaşadığı kutsal dağ Du-ku / Ekur’dan getirildiğine dair eski bir Sümer inancına çok iyi karşılık gelir. Schmidt, bu hikayeyi, ortaya çıkan Neolitik dönemin kısmi bir belleğini koruyan ilkel bir doğu efsanesi olarak tanımladı. >>

Https://enenuru.proboards.com/thread/176/du-ku-cosmology << ‘den Sonra, Black ḫursag̃ ve Kutsal Höyük’e (dul) hitap ediyor ve bu mükemmel tartışmada yeni bir şey ortaya çıkıyor: “Şimdi ḫursag̃ terimleri” tepe “ve dul” höyük “, bu terimlerin günlük konuşma sözlüğünün bir parçası olarak kullanılmasını uygun bir şekilde gösteren ve tamamen edebi bir sözlükle sınırlı olmayan Üçüncü Ur Hanedanlığı’ndan kalma idari saha planlarından bilinmektedir. ḫursag̃ tarlaların ekilmesi zor olan “tepelik” kısımları için (bu nedenle ḫursag̃ “tepe (ler)” olarak çevrilebilir) ve verimsiz olan alanlar için dul (yani, tahrip edilemeyen zemin, çünkü burası harap yerleşim yeridir. Burada “höyük” olarak çevrilen kelime Sümerce dul, Akadca tillu’dur (tabii ki Arapça söylenir). Öyleyse Kutsal Höyük olarak bilinen bir tepe, gök ile yerin ayrılmasından önce Anuna ve diğer tanrıların doğum yeriydi. Onun üzerinde yaşadılar ve insanlık aşağıda yaşadı. Tek bir Kutsal Höyük fikrinin hayal gücü uyarıcısı – bir dul ya da anlat – Mezopotamya ovasının yüzeyinde eski yerleşim kanıtı bulunan sayısız harabe höyük olmalı. Onlarda kimse yaşamadı, ancak onları sadece imleçle araştırmanız gerekiyor – köyünüz bir tanesinin yanındaysa ve bir akşam orada dolaşıyorsanız – seramik kalıntılardan ve ara sıra bulunan kafatası ve kemiklerden, onların yaşadıklarını anlamak için geçmiş. Ama kim tarafından? Efsanevi hayal gücü bize, tanrıların en uzak geçmişte ayakları yerde ama gökyüzüne yakın bir yerde yaşadıklarını söyler. Öyleyse Kutsal Höyük gibi efsanevi bir görüntü veya metafor, çok sayıda ve her yerde bulunan ıssız harabe höyükleri gibi peyzajın genelleştirilmiş unsurlarından türetilebilen tek bir kozmik konumdur. “Özetleme: Farklı kozmolojik materyallerin incelenmesinden, du-ku’nun yaratılışla ilgili Sümer hayallerinde büyük ölçüde yokmuş gibi göründüğünü görebiliriz. …….. Cohen on Sheep and Grain / Yazar, kozmolojik du-ku örneğinin yukarıda olduğu gibi Sheep and Grain münazara şiirinde ortaya çıkışına dikkat çekiyor – diğer bilim adamlarının görüşlerini kısaca özetliyor, yani van Dijk’in du- ku (kutsal höyük), tanrıların geldiği bir tür dünya dağında yer alır (Black’in dediği gibi, hursag). Jacobsen’in n’den bahseder. 27. sayfadan 371. sayfadan “Harplar ….” adlı eserinden. Bu, Jacobsen’ın katkıda bulunduğu önemli bir ipucudur: “Duku,” kutsal höyük “kutsal bir yerdi. Başlangıçta ve temelde terim, üzerine sıvanmış hasat edilmiş tahıl yığınını belirtiyordu, ancak genel olarak yer altı depolamasına genişletildi. Enlil’in ataları-güçleri Dünyadaki doğurganlık için – Duku’da bulunuyordu. ” ….. En-me-šar2-ra “Tüm Özlerin Efendisi” OB’de ve daha sonraki listelerde [Enmešara], Enlil’in ataları bağlamında ele alınır, ancak onlardan biri olarak değerlendirilmez. Onun hakkında diğer üçüncü binyılın sonları ve ikinci binyılın başlarındaki kaynaklardan çok az şey bilinmektedir ve buradaki birkaç gerçek, Enūma Eliš’in mitolojisinden büyük ölçüde etkilenen geç kült yorumlarından ve teolojik metinlerden dağınık bilgilerle zenginleştirilmelidir. …..Kozmogoni için bu çatışmanın anlamı, özler, ben ve kutsal hükümet olan nam-tar, “kaderleri belirleyen” arasındaki gerilimde yatmaktadır. Özler doğası gereği varoluşun bir parçasıdır, yaratılanla birlikte var olurlar, ancak kendileri yaratılmazlar. Enlil, An ve Enkig aktif hükümdarlığı temsil ederler, özleri tanrılara dağıtırlar ve her birine kendi görevi olan nam-tar’ı atarlar. Özler, adil kuralın amaçlarına hizmet eder hale getirilmiştir. Beyinsiz, eski özler kozmosu gitmek zorundaydı, ama mücadele etmeden vazgeçmedi, isyan etti: Enmešara, “Tüm Özlerin Efendisi”, Enlil gibi isim-tar ve yönetmeye çalıştı, ama başarısız oldu ve mağlup oldu. Orada olan şey, sonsuza dek ilahi hükümete tabi oldu.……. Ayrıca, bir ilahiden İnanna’ya bir satır, du-ku’nun E-kur tapınak kompleksinin binaları arasındaki fiziksel varlığını da anlatır: “Leydi ……! Geri dönen kahraman gençlik, Inana … …. Nibru’daki E-du-kug’daki tapınakta …… ”1993 tarihli Antik Yakın Doğu’nun Kült Takvimleri adlı eseri aşağıda esas olarak değineceğim M. Cohen, du-ku’nun E-kur kompleksi 2 ağıtta ve ayrıca ona du6-kù ki-kù “Kutsal höyük, kutsal yer” olarak veren “Dilmun” adlı bir eršemma-ilahide. Du-ku’yu Tummal kompleksi olarak bilinen – E-kur’un kendisine yakın bir yapı olarak konumlandırılmış olarak daha da izole ediyor, >>

From https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html Sign ME

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is ME~a.jpg

Sümer proto-çivi yazısı işareti KU: “kutsal” https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is KU~a.jpg

Sümer proto-çivi yazısı işareti Du: “höyük”

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is DU6~a.jpg

İlk Sümer Sözlüğü’nden – Çivi Yazılı Dijital Kütüphane … cdli.ucla.edu ›pubs› cdlp ›cdlp0003_20160104 · Pennsylvania Sümer Sözlüğü … agrun-ků tanrıça Ninlil’in Ur’daki kutsal alanı (LU 16) … ků (g ) (kug) kutsal, kutsal olmak; kutsallaştırmak Göbeklitepe burcu ?? kutsal mı?

Portals at Gobekli Tepe | Göbekli tepe, Ancient civilizations, Ancient  mysteries
Guarded by beasts: a porthole stone from Göbekli Tepe | The Tepe Telegrams
https://tepetelegrams.wordpress.com/2017/03/20/guarded-by-beasts-a-porthole-stone-from-gobekli-tepe/

Nereden https://www.facebook.com/TempleofSumer/posts/blessed-du-ku-from-temple-of-sumer-the-month-of-the-sacred-moundholy-hills-and-s/833633270129967/ << Blessed adresinden Sümer Tapınağı’ndan Du-ku! “Kutsal Höyük Ayı” Kutsal Tepeler ve Kutsal Dağlar – Duku Festivalinin Temelleri Kutsal tepeler ve kutsal dağlar, en eski çivi yazılı tabletlerden İncil kutsal metinlerindeki merkezi yerlerine kadar, Eski Yakın Doğu Edebiyatının çoğuna nüfuz eder. Musa’nın Sina Dağı’nın tepesinde duran, Tanrı’dan kutsal çivi yazılı tabletler alan, insanlığa tanrılaştırılmış Hammurbian yasaları veren Musa’nın görüntüsünden; İlyas Peygamber’in Karmel Dağı’nda duran ve Tanrısından kendisini Baal’den daha güçlü olduğunu kanıtlamasını isteyen imajına; ve dağda vaaz veren İsa’nın imajına kadar. Dağlar, Göklerin gökyüzüyle buluştuğu yerde yaşayan “Tanrı’ya daha yakın” olarak görüldüklerinden, hem Yahudi hem de Hıristiyan literatüründe her zaman büyük bir öneme sahip olmuştur. Bu fikrin bir sonucu olarak, Tanrı’nın ilahi bilgeliğini bir dağın tepesinden kutsal yazılarda bahşettiğini sık sık görüyoruz. Bunlar, en eski zamanlara, İncil’in parşömen haline getirilmesinden çok öncesine ve Patrik İbrahim’in Sümer Şehri Ur’dan yolculuğuna başlamasından çok önce, medeniyetin olduğu bir zamana kadar uzanan kavramlar ve ana motiflerdir. daha yeni başlıyordu.Çünkü bu Korkmuş Höyüğün üzerinde, Cennet ve Yeryüzünün “Ursag̃” (tepe) üzerinde, atalara ait Tanrıların yaratıldığı söylendi. En eski literatürde, MÖ 3. binyıla tarihlenen ‘Koyun ve Tahıl Arasındaki Tartışma’ adlı Sümer şiiri, Anunna’nın bulunduğu yer olan ‘bozkır’ anlamına gelen Sümer ‘Edin’i anlatan yaratılış efsanesine verilir. Tanrılar ilk yaratıldı. Bu tepe, Göklerin yeryüzüne oturduğu ve insanlığa ilk yaşam alanlarının verildiği noktada bulunuyordu. Bu altmış bir satır mit, İncil daha yazılmadan ve “Cennet Bahçesi” bir kavram bile olmadan iki bin yıldan fazla bir süre önce taşa tutulmuştu. Daha sonra, Ur döneminin Üçüncü hanedanından (MÖ 2200) itibaren, ‘Edin’ teriminin ‘tepe’ anlamına gelen ‘Hurşag’ veya bazı durumlarda Akadca’da ’tillu’ olarak yeniden ifade edildiğini gördük. Tarih öncesi höyükleri betimler. Ünlü Asurolog Jeremy Black, “Gizli Yerlerde Saklanan Zenginler” de, günümüz bilim adamlarının aksine, Sümerlerin insanlarının nereden geldiklerine ilgi duymadıklarını ve literatürlerinde nadiren yazdıklarını belirtti. Tanrıları, evrene düzen ve hizmet ettikleri topluma uygarlık getirmeye niyetlenen medeniyet tanrılarıydı. Bu nedenle, Sümerler inanılmaz derecede ileriye bakan, yaratıcılığa ve icatlara odaklanmış ve geçmişlerine bakmaktan ziyade daha iyi bir yarın için çalışan insanlardı. Öte yandan, Sümerler, zamanın başlangıcından beri yeryüzünde yaşamadıklarını ve ilk insanların, hayvanlar gibi medeniyetsiz bir durumda yaşadıkları, medeniyetten önce bir zaman olduğunu biliyorlardı. Gılgamış’ın Enkidu’su için ilham.Sümerler, medeniyetin çok daha sonraki bir gelişme olduğunu anladılar ve dünyanın nasıl ortaya çıktığı ve zamanın başlangıcında olayların nasıl olduğu hakkında spekülasyon yapmak onları büyüledi. “Koyun ve Tahıl Arasındaki Tartışma” da Kutsal Höyüğün, gökyüzü ve dünya ayrılmadan önce Anuna Tanrılarının doğum yeri olarak belirlendiğinden, merkez sahneyi aldığını görüyoruz. Anuna Tanrıları, kayıtlı tarih öncesinden kalma kadim Tanrılardı. Onlar, Sümer döneminde ve Akad döneminin sonlarında, Yeraltı Dünyasında Ereşkigal’in tahtının önünde oturan yedi yargıç olarak tasvir edilen Tanrılardı, birincil işlevleri insanlığın kaderini belirlemektir. Eski Babil döneminde, Anuna’nın Netherworld’ün chthonik tanrıları olduğuna inanılıyordu. ‘Akad’ın Laneti’nde Kutsal Höyük, Büyük Tanrı Enlil’in, Kutsal Höyüğün Efendisi En-duku-ga ve Kutsal Höyüğün Leydisi Nin-duku-ga’nın büyük atalarının bulunduğu dinlenme yeri olarak da tanımlanmaktadır. . Bu ilkel tanrılar, Enlil’in kendisinden bile önce gelmişti ve Enlil, An ve Ki’nin ilk doğan oğludur. Enlil’in ebeveynlerinden birinin ebeveynleri olabilirler veya daha da geriye gidebilirler. Jeremy Black, bu efsaneyi yazarken, Sümerlerin bu höyüklerle çevrili bir topraklarda yaşadıklarını ve onların en eski atalarının ve hatta efsanevi hayal güçlerini besleyen muhtemelen Tanrıların kendilerinin atalarının mahvolmuş yerleşimleri olduklarını bildiklerini teorileştirdi. . Sümer, MÖ 5500 ile MÖ 4500 arasında karmaşık bir medeniyet olarak ortaya çıkmış olsa da, nehirler arasındaki topraklarda, bundan çok daha önce Neolitik çağlara kadar uzanan bir yerde yaşayanların olduğu açıktır.Bu ilk sakinlere ilk Fıratlılar veya Ubeyyalılar diyoruz ve arkalarında birçok işaret bırakmışlardı. Bu ilk sakinlerin çoğu, muhtemelen Sümerlerin kendilerinin çok eski atalarıydı, ancak o zamandan önce “medeniyetler” olarak sınıflandırılmamışlardı. ‘Medeniyet’ terimi yalnızca ‘kaydedilmiş tarih’ ile devreye girer ve bunlardan kentsel gelişim, kültürel seçkinler tarafından empoze edilen sosyal tabakalaşma, doğal çevreden algılanan bir ayrılık ve tahakküm içeren bir dizi işaretleyici ile karakterize edildiğinde, ve karmaşık yazı sistemleri gibi sembolik iletişim sistemleri. Yani, Sümerler tüm bu kriterlere uyan ilk gerçek medeniyet olsa da, ataları muhtemelen bu noktadan önce bin yıl boyunca bu bölgede ve çevresinde yaşamışlardı. Jeremy Black şöyle devam etti: “Tek bir Kutsal Höyük fikrinin hayal gücü uyarıcısı – bir dul ya da anlatım – Mezopotamya ovasının yüzeyinde antik yerleşim kanıtı bulunan sayısız harabe höyük olmalıydı. Onlarda kimse yaşamadı, ancak onları sadece imleçle araştırmanız gerekiyor – köyünüz bir tanesinin yanındaysa ve bir akşam orada dolaşıyorsanız – seramik kalıntılardan ve ara sıra bulunan kafatası ve kemiklerden, onların yaşadıklarını anlamak için geçmiş. Ama kim tarafından?Efsanevi hayal gücü bize, tanrıların en uzak geçmişte ayakları yerde ama gökyüzüne yakın bir yerde yaşadıklarını söyler. Öyleyse Kutsal Höyük gibi efsanevi bir imge veya metafor, çok sayıda ve her yerde bulunan ıssız harabe höyükleri gibi manzaranın genelleştirilmiş unsurlarından türetilebilen tek bir kozmik konumdur. “Ünlü Alman arkeolog ve ön ve proto-tarihçi Klaus Schmidt, ‘Koyun ve Tahıl arasındaki Tartışma’da yazılan orijinal’ Duku’nun M.Ö. 9130’a kadar uzanan eski Neolitik dağ kutsal Göbekli Tepe’den başkası olmadığına inanıyordu. Şiirin kendisinin antik sitenin kültürel bir hafızası ve insanlığın ağırlıklı olarak avcı toplayıcılardan kalıcı bir yerleşim zamanına geçtiği zamandan kalma mito-tarihsel bir anlatı olduğuna inanıyordu. Göbekli Tepe’nin bir gün Kuzey Mezopotamya olarak sınıflandırılacak bir yerde yer aldığını ve bölgenin kendisinin bir gün Güney Mezopotamya’daki Sümer Şehri Ur olacak yerden sadece yedi günlük yürüme mesafesinde olduğunu ve hatta eşek ya da Fırat Nehri’nde tekne ile seyahat ederken bundan daha yakın. Muhtemelen bu gömülü ve terk edilmiş “antik kent” in tıpkı Sümer mitinde olduğu gibi engebeli ve dağlık bir çevrede yer alması tesadüf değildir ve arkeolojik kanıtlara göre birçok kişinin hayvancılığın doğum yeri olduğuna inanılan yer olması efsaneye uymaktadır. mükemmel de.Ancak daha da zorlayıcı olan şey, efsanede yer alan tahılın yaratılmasıdır, özellikle Göbekli Tepe’yi çevreleyen tepelerde bulunan antik einkorn buğdayını düşündüğünüzde, yetiştirilen her tür buğdayın tek genetik atasıdır. ve bugün dünyanın her yerinde yenildi. Üçüncü Ur Hanedanlığı döneminde ve yedi bin yıldan fazla bir süre sonra, Kutsal Höyük Duku Festivali sırasında sembolik bir temsiliyet üstlenmişti, çünkü dini bayram öncesinde hasat edilmiş tahılda inşa edilmişti. ‘Duku’ teriminin bu yeni anlamı, bilim adamları arasında kafa karışıklığına neden olmuş gibi görünüyor, çünkü çoğu akademisyen Kutsal Höyük’ü tarihi bir yer olarak kabul ederken, bu sembolik tasvirin yapısını detaylandıran metinleri okuyan Thorkild Jacobsen gibi diğerleri onun kökenini gördü. “harmanlanmış tahıl yığını” olarak ve Duku’nun bir tür yer altı deposu olması gerektiği sonucuna vardı. Bununla birlikte, Sümer dininin uygulayıcıları olarak, bazen akademisyenlerin metindeki edebi tasvirlere fazla odaklandıkları ve sempatik büyü kavramları konusunda bilgili olanların da onaylayacağı gibi, bazen gizli anlamlar görme lüksüne sahibiz. Görünüşlerinde benzerlik yasaları açıktır. Bu tahılın duvarlarının inşa edilme yönteminden, ‘Duku’nun’ içerdiği hasatla birlikte, verilen süt sunuları ve hazırlanan düzinelerce kuzunun sunuları ile birlikte, ataların anlattığına inanılmaz derecede benzediğini görebiliriz. hepsi ‘Koyun ve Tahıl Tartışması’ mitiyle yakından bağlantılıdır ve bu, Tanrılara hayat verilen efsanevi Kutsal Höyük ile bağlantılıdır.Bu nedenle, bu tahıl Duku’nun daha sonra geldiğini ve başlangıçta kült faaliyetlerinin bir parçası olarak yaratılan sembolik bir yapının gelişimi olduğunu ve daha sonra buradan tahıl siloları fikrine dönüştüğünü söyleyebilirim. Duku’nun 20 Eylül’de yeni ayın görülmesiyle doğru bir şekilde başlar, ayın ilk günü 21’inde doğru bir şekilde başlar. Bu sırada, aslında ayın sonlarına kadar gerçekleşmeyen Duku festivali için hazırlıklar yeni şekillenmeye başlayacaktı. Bu süre zarfında, Şuruppak ve Nippur arasındaki kanalın ortasında yer alan “kutsal bir şehir” olan Tummal’da sembolik bir Kutsal Höyük inşa edilir ve bu da Tell Dlihim bölgesiyle olası bir özdeşleşmeyi düşündürür. Tummal’ın kült merkezi bazen metinlerde, tıpkı Eridu gibi, sazlık ve bereketle bağlantılı ilkel bir şehir olarak tanımlanır. Duku Festivalinin kendisi aslında ayın 27. ve 28. gününde veya 17 ve 18 Ekim’de karanlık ay zamanında gerçekleşir. Kutsal Höyük Festivali başladığında, Kral’ın eşlik ettiği Enlil ve Ninlil kült heykelleri, diğer Nippurian tanrılarının kült heykelleri ile birlikte Nippur’daki Ekur Tapınağı’ndan alınıp tekneyle Tummal’a götürüldü. seçkinler töreni başlatmak için toplanmıştı. Festival süresince ritüel ve kurbanların ardından halka büyük miktarlarda yiyecek ve içecek dağıtıldı. Festival, 19 Ekim’de yeni ayın görünmesinden sadece birkaç gün önce gerçekleşir.Yeni ayın ortaya çıkışı hiç şüphesiz festivalin sonunu işaret ediyor ve Apin Du-a ayının başlamak üzere olduğunu gösteriyor. Bu gün okumak için iyi bir efsane, çoğu için ‘Koyun ve Tahıl arasındaki Tartışma’ olurdu. Bu parçada ele aldığımız nedenler, çünkü efsane Duku ile yakından bağlantılıdır. Bu bayram için uygun adaklar süt ve tahıllardır ve birçok Sümer Yeniden Yapılanma Uzmanı onları küçük kekler halinde pişirecektir. Ekmek yapımı, medeniyetin temel bir yapı taşıdır ve tahılın ekilmesini ve inceltildiğini gösterir. Bir kek haline getirmek ve dondurmak, sembolik olarak üzerine sıvanmış bir tahıl yığınını gösterir. Top kek tarifi süt içermelidir, çünkü bu höyüğün en yaygın sunumlarından biridir. Kutsal Höyük Bayramı genellikle harika bir kutlama ve ziyafet zamanı olarak görülse de, aynı zamanda kasvetli alt tonları olan dikkatli olmalıyız. aynı zamanda yeraltı dünyasının Tanrılarına saygı duyulduğu ve ataların hatırlandığı bir dönem olduğu için, geçmişte kaybettiklerimize saygılarımızı sunmayı ve bunu yaparken onların başarılarını takdir etmeyi de unutmamalıyız. O anılar, kaybettiklerimiz asla bizi terk etmeyecek. >>

Du-Ku = Hur-sarkmadaki E-Kur kompleksi arasında kutsal yer. E-kur kompleksi arasında kutsal yer (sütun bölgesi). Göbeklitepe tapınak kompleksi arasında sütun bölgesi (dairesel alan). Toros dağlarında Göbeklitepe tapınak kompleksi arasında sütun bölgesi (dairesel alan)

Du-Ku=Sacred place, among E-Kur complex in Hur-sag. Sacred place(pillar precinct), among E-kur complex. Pillar precinct among Göbeklitepe temple complex.

March 15, 2021

It seems that the place of origin of sumerian gods was Gobeklitepe. From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Du-Ku Du-Ku or dul-kug [du6-ku3]  is a Sumerian word for a sacred place Divine The location is otherwise alluded to in sacred texts as a specifically identified place of godly judgement.The hill was the location for ritual offerings to Sumerian god(s). Nungal and the Anunna dwell upon the holy hill in a text written from Gilgamesh.

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/G%C3%B6bekli_Tepe << Schmidt also engaged in speculation regarding the belief systems of the groups that created Göbekli Tepe, based on comparisons with other shrines and settlements. He presumed shamanic practices and suggested that the T-shaped pillars represent human forms, perhaps ancestors, whereas he saw a fully articulated belief in deities as not developing until later, in Mesopotamia, that was associated with extensive temples and palaces. This corresponds well with an ancient Sumerian belief that agricultureanimal husbandry, and weaving were brought to humans from the sacred mountain Du-ku/Ekur, which was inhabited by Annuna deities, very ancient deities without individual names. Schmidt identified this story as a primeval oriental myth that preserves a partial memory of the emerging Neolithic.>>

From https://enenuru.proboards.com/thread/176/du-ku-cosmology << Next, Black addresses the ḫursag̃ and the Holy Mound (dul) and something new emerges in this excellent discussion: “Now the terms ḫursag̃ “hill” and dul “mound” are known from administrative field plans dating from the Third Dynasty of Ur, which conveniently demonstrate the use of these terms as part of the everyday vocabulary of vernacular speech, not restricted to a purely literary lexicon. The plans use ḫursag̃ for the “hilly” parts of fields, which are difficult to cultivate (so the ḫursag̃ can be translated as “hill(s)”), and dul for areas of fields which are unproductive because they are tell-ground (that is, ground untillable because it is the site of ruined habitations). The word translated here as “mound” is Sumerian dul, Akkadian tillu (which is, of course, Arabic tell). A hill known as the Holy Mound, then, was the birthplace if the Anuna, and the other gods, at the time before sky and earth were separated. They lived up on it, and mankind lived down below. The imagination stimulus for the idea of a single Holy Mound -a dul or tell– must have been the numerous ruin mounds that dot the surface of the Mesopotamian plain, with evidence of ancient habitation. Nobody lived on them, but you only have to investigate them cursorily- if your village is next to one and you stroll up there of an evening- to realize, from the ceramic remains and the occasional skull and bone, that they had been inhabited in the past. But by whom? The mythic imagination tells us that this is where the gods lived in the most distant past, with their feet on the ground but close to the sky. A mythic image or metaphor such as the Holy Mound, then, is a single cosmic location derivable from generalized elements of the landscape, such as uninhabited ruin mounds, that are multiple and ubiquitous. “ Summing: From a survey of different cosmological material we can see that the du-ku seems in large to be absent from Sumerian imaginings in regards creation. …….. Cohen on Sheep and Grain/ The author notes the occurrence in the debate poem Sheep and Grain of an instance of the cosmological du-ku as we have above – he briefly recaps the views of other scholars, namely van Dijk’s suggestions of a the du-ku (sacred mound) as situated on a sort of world mountain on which the gods come from (as Black said, hursag). He mentions Jacobsen’s n. 27 from page 371 from his “the Harps….”. This is an important hint Jacobsen contributes: “Duku, “the holy mound,” was a sacred locality. Originally and basically the term designated the plastered-over pile of harvested grain, but it was extended to underground storage generally. Enlil’s ancestors- powers for fertility in the earth- were located in Duku.” ….. En-me-šar2-ra “Lord All Essences” In the OB and later lists [Enmešara] is treated in the context of Enlil’s ancestors, but not as one of them. Very little is known about him from other late third and early second millennium sources, and the few facts there are must be enriched by scattered information from late cultic commentaries and theological texts heavily influenced by the mythology of Enūma Eliš. ….. The meaning of this conflict for cosmogony lies in the tension between essences, me, and divine government, nam-tar, “decreeing the fates”. The essences are by nature part of existence, they came into being with what was created, but they are not created themselves. Enlil, An and Enkig represent active rulership, they distribute the essences over the gods and assign each his task, nam-tar. The essences are made subservient to the purposes of just rule. The brainless old cosmos of essences had to go, but it did not give way without struggle, it rebelled: Enmešara, “Lord all Essences”, tried to know nam-tar and rule like Enlil, but he failed and was defeated. What there is was subordinated to divine government for good. Lb.Rom. Înțelesul acestui conflict pentru cosmogonie constă în tensiunea dintre esențe, Me și guvernul divin, nam-tar, „decretând soartele”. Esențele fac parte din natură a existenței, au apărut cu ceea ce a fost creat, dar nu sunt create ele însele. Enlil, An și Enki reprezintă o guvernare activă, distribuind esențele zeilor și atribuind fiecăruia sarcina sa, nam-tar. Esențele sunt subordonate scopurilor unei reguli juste. Vechiul cosmos fără esența esențelor a trebuit să meargă, dar nu a cedat fără luptă, s-a răzvrătit: Enmešara, „Doamna tuturor esențelor”, a încercat să cunoască nam-tarul și să conducă ca Enlil, dar a eșuat și a fost învinsa. Ceea ce există a fost subordonat guvernului divin pentru totdeauna. …….As well, a line from a hymn to Inanna also spells out the physical existence of the du-ku among the buildings of the E-kur temple complex: “Lady ……! Returning heroic youth, Inana ……. At the shrine, in Nibru, in the E-du-kug ……” M. Cohen, whose 1993 work Cultic Calendars of the Ancient Near East I will chiefly refer to below, adds that the du-ku is placed within the E-kur complex in 2 lamentations and also in an eršemma-hymn called “Dilmun”, which gives it as the du6-kù ki-kù “The Sacred mound, the sacred place.” He further isolates the du-ku as being positioned in whats known as the Tummal complex – a construct near the E-kur itself,>>

From https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html Sign ME

Sumerian proto-cuneiform sign KU:”sacredhttps://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html

Sumerian proto-cuneiform sign Du:”mound

From Elementary Sumerian Glossary – Cuneiform Digital Library …cdli.ucla.edu › pubs › cdlp › cdlp0003_20160104 · Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary on the … agrun- the goddess Ninlil’s sanctuary at Ur (LU 16) … (g) (kug) to be sacred, holy; to sanctify

Gobeklitepe sign ?? “sacred” ??

Portals at Gobekli Tepe | Göbekli tepe, Ancient civilizations, Ancient  mysteries
https://ro.pinterest.com/pin/353251164495504746/
Guarded by beasts: a porthole stone from Göbekli Tepe | The Tepe Telegrams
https://tepetelegrams.wordpress.com/2017/03/20/guarded-by-beasts-a-porthole-stone-from-gobekli-tepe/

From https://www.facebook.com/TempleofSumer/posts/blessed-du-ku-from-temple-of-sumer-the-month-of-the-sacred-moundholy-hills-and-s/833633270129967/ Blessed Du-ku from Temple of Sumer! “The Month of the Sacred Mound” Holy Hills and Sacred Mountains – The Foundations of the Duku Festival Holy hills and sacred mountains permeate much of Ancient Near Eastern Literature, from the earliest cuneiform tablets, all the way to their central place in Biblical scripture. From the image of Moses, standing on top of Mount Sinai, receiving sacred cuneiform tablets from God, giving deified Hammurbian laws to mankind; to the image of the Prophet Elijah, standing on Mount Carmel, asking his God to prove himself more powerful than Baal; and all the way on to the image of Jesus giving the sermon on the Mount. Mountains have always had great significance in both Jewish and Christian literature, since they are seen as being “closer to God” who dwells where the Heavens meet the sky. As a result of this idea, we often see God bestowing his divine wisdom from a mountaintop in scripture. These are concepts and central motifs which stretch back to the earliest times, to long before the Bible was set to parchment, and long before the Patriarch Abraham first began his journey from the Sumerian City of Ur, all the way back to a time when civilization was just beginning. For it was said that upon this Scared Mound, “the ḫursag̃” (hill) of Heaven and Earth, that the ancestral Gods were created. In the earliest literature, the Sumerian poem ‘The Debate between the sheep and the Grain’, dated to the 3rd millennium BC, we are given the creation myth telling of the Sumerian ‘Edin’, meaning ‘steppe’, the place where the Anunna Gods were first created. This hill was situated at the point where the Heavens rested upon the Earth, and where mankind were given their first habitat. This sixty one line myth was set to stone over two thousand years before the Bible was even written, and before the “Garden of Eden” was even a concept. Later in time, from Third dynasty of Ur period (2200BC) onwards, we would find the term ‘Edin’ rephrased to ‘Hursag’ meaning ‘hill’, or in some cases ‘tillu’ in Akkadian, a term that was widely used to describe pre-historic tell mounds. In ‘Riches Hidden in Secret Places’ the acclaimed Assyriologist Jeremy Black noted that the Sumerians, unlike the scholars of today, had no interest in where their people had come from, and rarely wrote about it in their literature. Their Gods were Gods of civilisation, intent on bringing order to the universe, and civilisation to the society in which they served. Because of this, the Sumerians themselves were an incredibly forward looking people, focused on ingenuity and invention, and working towards a better tomorrow, rather than looking back to their past. On the other hand, the Sumerians knew they had not inhabited the earth since the very beginning of time, and that there had been a time before civilisation, when the very first men had lived in an uncivilised state like the animals, which was possibly the inspiration for Gilgamesh’s Enkidu. The Sumerians understood that civilisation had been a much later development, and it fascinated them to speculate on how the world had come into being, and how things has been at the beginning of time. In ‘The Debate between the sheep and the Grain” we see the Holy Mound take centre stage, as it was set as the birthplace Of the Anuna Gods at the time before sky and earth were separated. The Anuna Gods were ancient Gods from a time before recorded history. They were Gods that during the Sumerian period, and into the late Akkadian period were portrayed as seven judges who sit before the throne of Ereshkigal in the Underworld, their primary function is to decree the fates of humanity. During the Old Babylonian period, the Anuna were believed to be the chthonic deities of the Netherworld. In the ‘Curse of Akkad’ the Sacred Mound is also described as the resting place where the great ancestors of the Great God Enlil, En-duku-ga the Lord of the Sacred Mound and Nin-duku-ga the Lady of the Sacred Mound. These primordial gods even predated Enlil himself, and Enlil is the first born son of An and Ki. They may be the parents of one of Enlil’s parents, or they may go even further back. Jeremy Black theorised that at the time of writing this myth, the Sumerians lived in a land surrounded by these tell mounds, and knew they were the ruined habitation of their most ancient ancestors, and possibly even the Gods themselves ancestors, which fuelled their mythic imaginations. Although Sumer emerged as a complex civilisation between 5500BC to 4500BC, it is clear that there had been inhabitants in the land between the rivers long before that point back to Neolithic times. We call these early inhabitants the proto-Euphrateans, or Ubaidians, and they had left many markers behind. Many of these early inhabitants were probably very ancient ancestors of the Sumerians themselves, although before that point in time they were not classed as ‘civilisations’. The term ‘civilisation’ only comes into play with ‘recorded history’, and when characterized by a series of set markers, of which include urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment, and symbolic systems of communication such as complex writing systems. So, while the Sumerians were the first true civilisation to fit all of those criteria, their ancestors had probably already lived in this area, and its surrounding areas, for millennia before this point. Jeremy Black went on to state that: “The imagination stimulus for the idea of a single Holy Mound -a dul or tell- must have been the numerous ruin mounds that dot the surface of the Mesopotamian plain, with evidence of ancient habitation. Nobody lived on them, but you only have to investigate them cursorily- if your village is next to one and you stroll up there of an evening- to realize, from the ceramic remains and the occasional skull and bone, that they had been inhabited in the past. But by whom? The mythic imagination tells us that this is where the gods lived in the most distant past, with their feet on the ground but close to the sky. A mythic image or metaphor such as the Holy Mound, then, is a single cosmic location derivable from generalized elements of the landscape, such as uninhabited ruin mounds, that are multiple and ubiquitous.”The acclaimed German archaeologist and pre and proto-historian Klaus Schmidt firmly believed the original ‘Duku’ that was written of in ‘The Debate between the sheep and the Grain’ was none other than Göbekli Tepe, the ancient Neolithic mountain sanctuary dating back to around 9130BCE. He believed that the poem itself was a cultural memory of ancient site, and a mythohistorical narrative from the time when mankind moved from being predominantly hunter gatherers to a time of permanent settlement. It’s worth considering that the site of Göbekli Tepe is situated in what would one day be classed as Northern Mesopotamia, and the site itself was only seven days walk on foot from what would one day become the Sumerian City of Ur in Southern Mesopotamia, and even closer than that when travelling by donkey, or by boat down the River Euphrates. It’s probably no coincidence that this buried and abandoned “ancient city” was situated in a hilly and mountainous environment just like in the Sumerian myth, and being what many believe to be birthplace of animal husbandry from the archaeological evidence at the site, fits the myth perfectly too. What is even more compelling however is the creation of grain that takes place in the myth, especially when you consider the ancient einkorn wheat, found in the hills surrounding the Göbekli Tepe, just happens to be the single genetic ancestor of every strain of wheat grown and eaten across the earth today. During the Third Dynasty of Ur period, and over seven millennia later, the Sacred Mound had taken on a symbolic representation during the Duku Festival, as a likeness of it was built in harvested grain in the lead up to the religious holiday. This new meaning for the term ‘Duku’ seems to have caused confusion among scholars, as while most academics held to the Sacred Mound as a historic locality, others such as Thorkild Jacobsen, who read texts detailing the construction of this symbolic depiction saw its origin as a “plastered-over pile of harvested grain”, and concluded that the Duku must have been some sort of underground storage. However as practitioners of the Sumerian religion we sometimes have the luxury of seeing hidden meanings where perhaps the academics are too focused on literal depictions in the text, and as any who are well versed in the concepts of sympathetic magic will attest, in this case the laws of similarity are obvious in their apparency. We can see from the method of construction of the walls of this grain ‘Duku’ are incredibly similar to the construction of ancestral tells, together with the harvest it contains, the offerings of milk it is given, and offerings of dozens of lambs prepared, all tie in intimately with the myth ‘Debate between Sheep and Grain’ and it’s links to the mythic Sacred Mound, on which the Gods were given life. Because of this I would say this grain Duku came later, and was the development of a symbolic construction originally created to be as part of the cultic activities, which then later developed from there to the idea of grain silos.In the Nippurian Calendar the month of Duku begins properly with the sighting of the new moon on the 20th of September, with the first day of the month beginning properly on the 21th. At this time the preparations would just be beginning to take shape for the Duku festival, which didn’t actually take place until much later in the month. During this time, a symbolic Sacred Mound is constructed in Tummal, a “sacred city” located middle-way along the canal between Šuruppak and Nippur, suggesting a possible identification with the site of Tell Dlihim. The cult centre of Tummal is sometimes defined in texts as a primeval city, much like Eridu, connected to reeds and abundance. The Duku Festival itself actually takes place on the 27th and 28th day of the month, or the 17th and 18th of October, during the time of the dark moon. As the Festival of the Sacred Mound began, the cult statues of Enlil and Ninlil, accompanied by the King, along with the cult statues of other Nippurian Gods, were taken from the Ekur Temple in Nippur, and transported by boat to the Tummal where the elite had gathered to begin the ceremony. During the festival large quantities of food and drink were distributed to the people after the rituals and offerings. The festival itself takes place just a few days before the new moon appears on the 19th of October. The new moon’s appearance no doubt marking the end of the festival, and signalling that the month of Apin Du-a is about to begin.A good myth to read on this day would be ‘The Debate between Sheep and Grain’ for much of the reasons we have covered in this piece, because the myth is intimately linked with the Duku. Offerings appropriate for this holiday are milk and grains, and many Sumerian Reconstructionists will bake them into cupcakes. Bread making is a fundamental building block of civilization and demonstrates the cultivation and refinement of grain. Cooking it into a cake, and frosting it shows a mound of grain being symbolically plastered over. The cupcake recipe should include milk, as this was one of the most common offerings to the mound.Although the Festival of the Sacred Mound was generally seen as a great time of celebration and feasting, we must also be mindful that is had sombre undertones, as it was also a time when the Gods of the underworld were paid homage, and the ancestors were remembered, so we should also remember to pay our respects to those we have lost in the past, and in doing so pay tribute to their achievements. Though those memories, those we have lost will never leave us.>>

Du-Ku=Sacred place, among E-Kur complex in Hur-sag. Sacred place(pillar precinct), among E-kur complex. Pillar precinct (circular enclosure) among Göbeklitepe temple complex.

The mysterious H and I signs on Gobeklitepe pillars.

March 14, 2021

On independent ways and not much different reasoning I came to the close and same conclusions ..... as regarding these above mentioned signs.I am stressing that the signs are far from animal-related pictograms, I am shocked to have at that remote time so HIGH STILISED IDEOGRAMS.

From Cosmic Power of the Shaman and Symbols at Göbekli Tepe – Part II by OZGUR ETLI https://www.ancient-origins.net/opinion-guest-authors/cosmic-power-shaman-and-symbols-g-bekli-tepe-part-ii-005194?fbclid=IwAR3su5G7VhU0T8iOqxKp9Lmk5XTpsaiFG-nOMch3cE52vHClRWhahVkhge8 <<The H Symbol

The pillars at Göbeklitepe depict the “H” sign
Pillar-18, 

One of the highly disputed symbols is the H-like symbol (and also “( H )” symbol) which is seen carved on  Enclosure D pillars. Some say this symbol emblematizes the Orion constellation. I think this is not true. Because, besides the “H “symbol, there is an “I-like” symbol, which can define as slanted “H”. Both of them are not related to Orion. To provide some intriguing and factual meanings based on cultural and archaeological datas:“H” symbol is not only a monolith symbol itself. It consists of two parts, which we can define as Tau. We encounter the same “H” symbol in Utah petroglyphs which are made by Anasazis. Indeed, we see the complete “( H )” symbol. Here the “H” symbol is not alone. On both sides there are other symbols.

Utah petroglyphs
Utah petroglyphs

Ray Urbaniak interprets the “H” symbol to mean double T shapes. Two T shapes butted together form a double T. He also says that Tau represents half of which is in the spiritual world. So, we can imagine that the “H” symbol consists of two Tau symbols. In my opinion, both of the side symbols next to “H” symbol represent the rising and setting sun. This tripartite character matches a verbal expression of mythological ideas about the three states of sun throughout the day (or moon throughout the night). The Ancient Egyptian god says: I am Khepra in the morning, I am Ra at noon, I am Atum in the evening—the names of deities that represent the sun in its various states. The I Symbol The “I” symbol of ancient Mexican mythology not only exhibits a single Tau of two forms, but in different positions, as well as two double-headed figures joined in one, which illustrates the duality, above and below, or heaven and earth.Turkish rug motifs also contain “H” and “I” symbols. The meanings of these symbols are “marriage”, “unity of family” and “faithfulness of lovers”. Sometimes it represents “motherhood”, “fecundity” and “birth”. Among these rug motifs an important one, the so-called “Eli Belinde (Hand on belly)”, seems quite like Göbekli Tepe’s central pillars, upon which we see both hands on omphalos.In Proto-Turkish culture the “I” symbol was called as the “ON: Cosmos”. Interestingly, In Chinese culture “I” symbol represents the shaman or spirit intermediary, so-called Wu. The widespread usage amongst indigenous American peoples of the inverted and upright Tau shape as emblems of the above and below is abundantly proven and doubtlessly arose as naturally as the Chinese characters “Shang: Above”, employed as a symbol for heaven, and “Lea: Below or Beneath”, employed as a symbol for earth. The connection between Heaven and Earth represents the creation of innocence and this is reflected by the central line.

The Chinese characters “Shang: Above”, employed as a symbol for heaven, and “Lea: Below or Beneath”, employed as a symbol for earth

The Chinese characters “Shang: Above”, employed as a symbol for heaven, and “Lea: Below or Beneath”, employed as a symbol for earth. So, I can suggest that the mysterious “I” symbol is about a “Heaven (Sky) – Earth connection: so the life could exist”. In shamanic belief, Earth takes its life force from the sky via the navel cord. Göbekli Tepe should be seen as an important site for this reason. (Interestingly, In Turkish “Göbek” means “The Navel”). In this, creative powers unite for birth or rebirth. Therefore, some specific days are vital for taking life energy from the sky or heaven. Life force is believed to be always there, but not always visible. It is believed to be visible on specific days of year. These days are the equinox and solstice days. On the other hand, the “H” or slanted “I” symbol may be about East-West, Woman-Man or God-Goddess connections. The earth and sky motifs, and the rituals represented by these motifs, were probably linked together as a ritual duality. In a duality, neither earth nor sky can exist without the other, and both earth and sky-related rituals were necessary elements in the lives of people, such as seen in the Ho’e’ga; The Osage (Great Plains Native American) ritual name for earth: an enclosure in which all life takes on bodily form. Why can it not be the same in Göbekli Tepe? It is possible that the placement of the shaman is a reminder of the shaman’s roles as a ritual functionary and mediator between the natural and supernatural worlds. In this case, the shaman may have also served as a ritual bridge between earth and sky. >>

I found another opinion where T=below and upside T= above: From Gobekli Tepe: The Navel, The Center of the Earth Cliff Richey https://www.academia.edu/35934540/Gobekli_Tepe_The_Navel_The_Center_of_the_Earth

In order to understand, the Gobekli Tepe, Pillar 56 that is composed of, mostly, Birds and Serpents we need to understand what the (black) Pillar Form represents. The Large Size indicates, the great one,The Pillar is in the overall Form of a “T” shaped stone, that is based on the gesture sign for, below.6 In the gesture sign the two hands together indicate by a Straight Line, the surface, usually indicating, the land’s surface. Illustration 10: Composition of the “T” Form As a Form the “T” simply indicates, below. Additional meaning is obtained by dividing the Form into it
component, Gesture Sign, parts: The Top surface, The Horizontal Bar as the gesture sign for, a
horizontal-place, and the Stem, that means, a vertical-place. The Great Kiva in New Mexico is a below the surface structure like the one in Gobekli Tepe. The “T” shaped doorway has steps leading down into the circular excavation. The Kiva was probably, cosmological, and considered as within the underworld. The Kivs is a chamber, built wholly or partly underground, used by male Pueblo Indians for religious rites. …….. The Feet are in the Form of the upside-down the “T” Form (the opposite of the upright “T” Form) meaning,
above, on, the surface.
>>

My opinions: – H and I signs, beeing highly stilised signs, must represent rather complex abstract notions. – I was the first one wich associated Tau-shaped pillars with sumerian proto-cuneiform sign “Me”, where Me beeing a sign related to the divine/divinity, where that divine would be, on Earth or in the Sky. If somebody asking why such distant in time relation, I am remembering you that some signs as cross, swastica has a multiple thousend years long life. Some signs were used thousend years before the advent of writing ! – Double Tau=H/I=MeMe could be Ur-Meme

From Download PDF – Brillbrill.com › book › Bej.9789004173811.i-768_007.xmlNippur exemplars of the Sumerian King List32 begin with the first post- diluvian … Ur-Meme,” the aristocratic family which held some of the highest polit- ical and ..

From Dispute Resolution in the Provincial Courts of the … – Deep Bluedeepblue.lib.umich.edu › handle › leculber_1PDFby LE Culbertson · 2009 · Cited by 14 — Selected Neo-Sumerian Administrative Texts from the British Museum … and subordinates of a wealthy landholder, Ur-meme

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Mesopotamian_deities Gula, also known as Nintinugga, Ninkarrak, Meme, Bau, and Ninisina, is the Mesopotamian goddess of healing and the divine patroness of doctors and medicine-workers. – Or represented <ALL/WHOLE World, “Universe”>

  • The H sign-Orion relation is old, consistent and very strong, as Orion beeing most visible constellation on sky. Orion would be in afterlife a GATE TO THE SKY/UNIVERSE ! I found separately the same chinese signs: EVOLUTION OF CHINESE CHARACTERS漢字發展 https://www.ocf.berkeley.edu/~wwu/chinese/handout.html
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NOTE Upon chinese rendering, T-shaped pillars are related to “down” ,Earth. This is according to old stages of religion developement when lower (place, chtonic) gods preceded later high (Sky) gods. https://hraf.yale.edu/ehc/summaries/religion#gods-and-spirits << Animism was the first form, followed by belief in an afterlife, which, in turn, was followed by shamanism and ancestor worship. They found that ancestor spirits and/or high gods thought to be active in human affairs were probably absent among early humans perhaps reflecting a deep history of egalitarianism in hunter-gatherer groups.>> Out of Utah, such signs were used later in Corsica:

Gobekli tepe: A Proto-Turkish Temple?
Gobekli tepe: A Proto-Turkish Temple? https://pt.slideshare.net/zgrBarEtli/gobekli-tepe-a-prototurkish-temple/20?smtNoRedir=1