Why the “T” shape at 10,000 B.C.E. !?


I am referring to the shape of the stone monuments at Göbekli Tepe, Turkey in the shape of “Tau-cross”. Image, from https://thriveglobal.com/stories/gobekli-tepe-is-rewriting-our-entire-understanding-of-human-history/

Gobekli Tepe is Rewriting Our Entire Understanding of Human History

From https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-Pottery_Neolithic

Fertile crescent Neolithic B circa 7500 BC.jpg
Area of the fertile crescent, circa 7500 BC, with main Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites. The area of Mesopotamia proper was not yet settled by humans. Geographical range Fertile Crescent Period Neolithic Dates c. 10,000 — 6,500 BCE Type site Jericho Preceded by Epipalaeolithic Near East (Kebaran cultureNatufian culture) Khiamian Followed by Halaf cultureNeolithic GreeceFaiyum A culture

Theoretically they could choose between extremely many forms. but this concrete form, and not another, is the result of a multitude of conditionings, aspects and concrete elements related to the mental evolution of man, the concrete conditions, the stage of evolution of society and religion, plus many other elements. Certainly the form was in the mind and collective consciousness even before the stone monuments / stars were carved, that is, they would have scratched the amulets used in the rituals (shamanic rituals say specialists). If I were to rely on the closest sign in time (the sign of Me in the shape of your cross) used by the Sumerians, it does not help me much because the meaning of the notion of Me is abstract and complex.

Sumerian proto-cuneiform sign “me” from https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html

It means and refers to extremely many notions.

https://www.sumerian.org/sumerian.pdf me, mì; ñe: n., function, office, responsibility; ideal norm; the phenomenal area of a deity’s power;
divine decree, oracle; cult
[ME archaic frequency: 363; concatenates 2 sign variants].
v., to be; the Sumerian copula; to say, tell. poss. suffix, our.

For example, one of the basics is “essence”. This Ma represents, as far as I understand, the reflection, the design of the legitimacy of the universe and the involvement of the divinity in any aspect related to the concrete life of people. This connection of the shape of the monuments with the Sumerian proto-cuneiform sign “Me” to my knowledge has not been made by anyone else, and so to speak, belongs to me. In general, when it comes to imagining a symbol for a notion or set of notions, one of the initial conditions is that it be both simple and synthetic. Paradoxically for us it would be: what symbol can render the essence of the notion of essence? In fact, the essence + legitimacy + divine decree + … another 50 meanings, life, struggle, etc.etc.

A sinuous curved shape is out of the question, as it is about divine principles and laws of the universe. Of course, the circle also comes out of the discussion, because the circle does not involve fixing, establishing, declaring but instability, revolving around something. Very interesting that another reading of the Sumerian sign is that of battle.

Sumerian Lexicon – Sumerian Language Pagewww.sumerian.org › sumerian Sumerian Lexicon, Version 3.0. 13 v., to be; the Sumerian copula; to say, tell. poss. suffix, our. : (cf., gíg). me3,6,7,9: battle [ME3 archaic …

As I thought, the shape represents a strong ancestor as well as his weapon, the stone battle axe/hammer. From https://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/21861516_neolithic-stone-axe-head-anatolia

Neolithic Stone Axe Head - Anatolia - Dec 06, 2013 | Artemis Gallery in CO

Din Archaeologists find 12000-year-old pictograph at Gobeklitepe mitchtempparch.blogspot.com › 2015/07 › archaeologi.. <<Arheologii cred că acești stâlpi sunt reprezentări stilizate ale ființelor umane datorită apendicelor umane săpate în piatră. >>

Our sign is also the hammer of the deity Thor, but I also saw it in Charun, Aion and Zeus hands. From https://ferrebeekeeper.wordpress.com/2014/06/12/etruscan-gods-of-death-and-the-underworld/

Etruscan Gods of Death and the Underworld | ferrebeekeeper

Hammer,hammer From https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html sign URUDU~a

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is URUDU~a.jpg

Mallet,hammer, isn’nt it ? But see why URUDU:sum.”Copper” has this shape and where could come from:As you will see metallurgy come from the North: From www.academia.edu › Sumerian_uru… Rezultate de pe web (PDF) Sumerian urudu and Kartvelian Metallurgy.pdf | Anna … <<In Kartvelian (eugenrau:GEORGIA), we have the word uro ‘mallet’, which is phonetically similar to the … Thus, the ultimate meaning of the Sumerian urudu is uro ‘a big hammer’ + du ‘head, chief’, i.e. ‘the chief big hammer’, ‘the leading big hammer’ >>

Possible at the origin the vord come from “the chief big hammer” , soo possible the Tau cross shape of monuments ment: “THE CHIEF (big hammer)” as you see the proto-cuneiform shape URU~a

Could they use the cross with equal arms? No, because from the Mesolithic the sign was used for profane purposes to make signs on the raboj. Later the Sumerians used the sign of the cross in the circle for sheep (UDU)

and the simple cross for twin and sun (MAS, UTU)

Probably the ancestor of the hunter-gatherer population was a strong hunter with supernatural physical strength. From Archaeologists find 12000-year-old pictograph at Gobeklitepemitchtempparch.blogspot.com › 2015/07 › archaeologi… << Archaeologists believe these pillars are stylised representations of human beings because of the human appendages carved into the stone.>> There were found in other place in Anatolia “T shape” sculptured stones with antropomorphic traits and shapes: From A rather odd figure: The so-called Kilisik Sculpture from Adıyaman, Turkey https://www.dainst.blog/the-tepe-telegrams/2019/03/20/a-rather-odd-figure-the-so-called-kilisik-sculpture-from-adiyaman-turkey/?fbclid=IwAR19iCk81lNLPNNm17X5faD8dWGOskUmk24aM8BYhl701Jh-dIeHfV73eTQ <<The apparently anthropomorphic appearance and meaning of (at least some of) the T-shaped pillars known from Göbekli Tepe, Nevalı Çori (and likely many of the other sites with similar pillars in the area too) could have been convincingly explained by a number of very characteristic details depicted in reliefs on these pillars. Among them arms and hands as well as stola-like garments and, in the case of Göbekli Tepe’s Pillars 18 and 31 (in Building D), even belts and loincloths. ….

D1Js5VPWoAA0bxt.jpg large

This combination of very specific and very different elements and ideas makes the sculpture from Kilisik so special among Pre-Pottery Neolithic image representations and forms an interesting link between the various types of sculptural art of the period.

Hauptmann (2012, 22) even suggested to interpret this scene as a ‘mother and child’ motive (known i.a. from two of Nevalı Çori’s clay figurines). In this case the Kilisik example would represent the first female depiction to be associated with the T-shaped sculptures.>>

‮חקות העמים הבל הוא‬ (Jer 10:3) in Light of Akkadian Parṣu and … https://www.jstor.org › stable <<Akkadian parṣu is unanimously taken to mean only “cult-ordinance.” Nonetheless in numerous texts it designates physical objects including divine statues and symbols, and in these cases it should be rendered “properly formed cult object” or “properly fashioned divine statue/symbol.” This new understanding of the Akkadian term provides a parallel to “ḥuqqōt hāʿammīm” in Jer 10:3 which may be rendered now “the properly formed cult statues of the gentiles.”>>

From INTERPRETING THE CONCEPT OF ‘PLAN’ IN SUMERIAN …http://cejsh.icm.edu.pl › cejsh › element <<The aim of this article is to interpret the meaning and concept of the word ‘plan’ or ‘drawing’ in Sumerian and Akkadian written sources and to give a brief summary of this phenomenon in Mesopotamia in the 3rd-1st millennium BC. The Sumerian word ‘gis-hur’ (lit. ‘wood scratch’, meaning ‘plan’ or ‘design’), and the Akkadian word ‘eseru(m)’ (‘to draw’, ‘to design’, ‘drawing’, ‘design’ or ‘plan’) are mostly mentioned in a substantive context which encompasses the divine sphere. Gods and kings establish the world order with various ‘designs’ and ‘plans’. The Sumerian phenomenon of ‘me’ (the ‘divine power’ of gods) which describes god’s essence and is a divine attribute, and the Akkadian term ‘parsu(m)’ (‘cultic ordinance’) which encompasses divine ‘order’ and ‘cultic rites’, are both closely connected with the phenomena of ‘gis-hur’ and ‘eseru(m)’>>

www.researchgate.net › figure “Judgment of the Bird-Man” (BM 103317), The British Museum … In Akkadian mythology the terms ‘ plan’ and ‘design’ very often seem to be synonymous with parsu(m) (‘cultic ordinance’),

www.sbl-site.org › pdfs › pubsPDF Reading Akkadian Prayers and Hymns – Society of Biblical … Akkadian prayers and hymns : a reader / edited by Alan Lenzi. p. cm. — (society of Biblical … Parṣū, “cultic ordinances, rites.”

books.google.ro › books WealthWarn: A Study of Socioeconomic Conflict in Hebrew Prophecy Michael S. Moore — 2019 · Religion 73 Jeremy Black translates ME as “divine power” and GARZA as “rites.”

From https://balticasianstudies.wordpress.com/earlier-conferences/conference-2016/sections/section-5-ancient-near-eastern-studies/vladimir-emelianov-st-petersburg-state-university-russia-religious-and-philosophical-aspects-of-the-sumerian-proverbs/?fbclid=IwAR3hLygAWm2r9ZQ5C6TC4PpwB0YI1vORhAYLH7x-YT-TQ3LXW9H_-WrtXBo <<Category ME is known in the proverbs as having four meanings: a) brightness of fire, b) power, c) rites, d) office, position. The presence of ME provides the Universe with necessary rituals and principles, on the basis of which life is possible in itself. The concept of life is divided in proverbs to a) life in the human body, and b) life as an external process. A play on homonymous roots til3 ‘life’ and til3 ‘to end’ leads to an understanding of life as a process that is looking to end. The body life in the Sumerian proverbs proclaimed to be self-sufficient and the most significant value of the world. The worst punishment from gods is hunger, nuisance is wandering, and the greatest pleasure is beer (as product of sedentary life). Death was considered to be the lot of all mankind. The destiny of man was described in three main aspects: a) fate as the external thing (clothes, dog), b) fate as fortune, c) fate as mother’s voice. In proverbs great importance is given to human personal qualities, especially to piety towards one’s personal god, dignity, truth, and wisdom. >>

www.sociostudies.org › filesDOC 8 The Ruler as Possessor of Power in Sumer Vladimir V … – Dmitri M The derivation of lugal is quite clear: it means ‘ Great lu2’. … is close connection between such similar forms and ideas as Sumerian me

www.academia.edu › The_Land_of… (PDF) The Land of the Celestial Gates | Hamlet Martirosyan … <<… which the Sumerian ME cuneiform sign is derived, has the meaning ofhole, fissure, … The word “hmay” in Armenian has the meanings of “witch, enchant, magical divination, talisman”>>

ON ТНЕ ORIGINAL МEANING OF SUМERIAN МЕ
(lmages of Weltanschauung and the Methods of Тl1eir Study) V.V. Yemelyanov <<The article discusses the proЫem of translating and int,:rpreting Sumerian МЕ Ьу means of the O\d
Babylonian cuneifonn vocabularies and the Neo-Sumerian Gudea texts. The main supposition is that the
word was derived from the verb МЕ «to bе apparent, visible» and its original meaning was «will to live».
The author understands МЕ as the first stage of the life-process: transition of а subject from the inner
world to the outer space (as one can conclude from the cuneiform sign МE «tongue put out of mouth»).
This is why МЕ’s are so important in the New Year period of Sumero-Babylonian calender texts.>>

================================= We find later in the Sumerians with these meanings related to divinity makes me believe that the sign is not only related to the worship of ancestors or the dead. But my opinion is that, since then, (10,000 BC) the Tau icon has been connected with the idea of ​​divinity, even if the divinity was not yet perceived as a deity but divine ancestor; “divine” was not only the hiero ancestor, the symbol also the living creatures, life and so whole universe. Universe was worthy of admiration and deep reverence. A simple pillar or star induces the idea of ​​moving forward, of thinking, of searching. But this sign with the horizontal part above can signify the sky that covers us, that hides all secrets and that cover up. Remember, that until a few hundred years ago people had the conception that the celestial vault is a covering that contains the stars and covers us. The sky covered them in such a way that it is the last border over which there is nothing left and it is not possible to cross. The horizontal part being above still shows the desire to get up and get there. Possible rituals and stelae are related to rituals to charm the game, improve the hunting and for a better life.

Aditional documentation:

CHAPTER SEVENTEEN: THE MEANING OF THE ME https://sites.google.com/site/drgeorgefisham/publications/eden/chapter-seventeen-the-meaning-of-the-me

The concept of “me” was an important aspect in Sumerian mythology.  According to Christopher Siren (Sumerian Mythology FAQ, http://home.comcast.net/~chris.s/sumer-faq.html), “the me were universal decrees of divine authority…the invocations that spread arts, crafts, and civilization.”  In other words, “me” constituted the various divine functions that became distributed between the different gods and goddesses of the Sumerian pantheon.  Since these functions were basically “powers” to rule over various aspects of nature and society, they received their original creation from Enlil, the god of power and kingship.  For a long time, Enlil stored the me at his Nippur Temple, known as E-Kur, the “Strange House” or the “House of Kur.”  Then the great Zu Bird stole them and flew rapidly toward the Primordial Ocean with the me nestled securely in its beak.  Could this part of the tale constitute some dim recollection that “power” first resided among the strange, “bird” women (Mushen) of Kur?  At any rate, Enlil sent his warrior son, Ninurtu, to retrieve the powers.  A mighty battle ensued, during which the Bird dropped its prize into the waters of the Abyss.  Ever so gently, the me floated downward to Engur, the subterranean home of Enki, the god of water and wisdomThus, the divine invocations became the property of Enki, to dispense according to wisdom rather than brute force.  No matter how Enlil plotted for their return, he was never completely successful.From Eridu, the center of his worship, Enki imparted “me” to the rest of the world.  By means of his wise disbursement, the world gained order, government, arts, crafts, and civilization.  These good aims were accomplished as the various gods and goddesses assumed their proper functions.  The whole world seemed willing to recognize the wise rule of Enki, all except Inanna, the goddess of love.  She came to Eridu and complained that Enki’s decrees left her with too little power.  In one version of the story, Inanna succeeded at getting Enki thoroughly drunk.  While the god of wisdom lay intoxicated, Inanna stole ninety-four of the me and transported them to her cult center at E-Anna in Uruk.  Perhaps, at the height of her power, Inanna of Uruk had ninety-four sacred names or titles, each thought to convey special abilities upon a devotee.  These stories about the me may also reflect the general transfer of cultures in southern Mesopotamia, from Samarran (Kurian), to Ubaidian (Enki), to Uruk (Inanna).Besides its mythological meaning, “me” had a linguistic significance that may help us to reconstruct the original connotation for this term.  Me” functioned as a part of titles, designating that the holder should be worshipped as divine.  For example, the names “enme” or “enmen” can be translated as “the divine lord” (Sum: en = “lord,” me = “divine“).  Presumably, someone who received a “me” from Enki became an “enmen,” capable of ruling over some aspect of society or nature. ………
….Perhaps we have now arrived at the original meaning of “me.”   At first, a “me” was one of these commemorative hymns composed to preserve the heritage of the Eridu founders.  Six high priests, each the head of a particular order, had memorized their respective “me,” the one corresponding to their specific sect.  It was the responsibility (among other duties) for each high priest to make sure that his “me” got passed to the next generation verbatim, with no additions or subtractions.  To help ensure this process, it was thought that the proper invocation of a “me” could release all sorts of magical powers on the world.  Furthermore, those who knew the words of “me” gained powers of magic and wisdom in their own right.  The high priest in charge of a “me” was called an “Enmen.”  Perhaps the original meaning of this title was simply “high priest (en) in charge of a hymn or song (me).”    We believe this view gives a more natural translation to our full titles than the later rendering of “divine lord.”  Thus, “Enmenluanna” would more easily translate as “the high priest in charge of the hymn about the man of An.”  The same would hold true of the other titles involving “en” or “enmen.”

As Ubaidian culture spread throughout the Mesopotamian valley, cities were increasingly organized along the lines established at Eridu.  At the head of each settlement was an Enki (Lord of the Land).  Below him came the Council of the six Enmens, each carefully preserving the words of their respective “me.”  The growing power of this system can be seen in the names that follow Nangish-Lishma (Cain) in the Sumerian King List.  Bahina may mean “(he) does not (na) dilute (hi) or distribute (ba) (his power).“  This title aptly describes the first Enki, the founder of Eridu.  If we have properly interpreted the King List, it may be worth noting that he is the only ruler in the proto-Kish dynasty assigned a believable reign (36 years).  All other monarchs receive approximate floruits.  In various versions of the King List, Bahina is followed by Buan(num) or En-tarah-anna.  Both names show how divination of the Enkis was replacing the older worship of An.  Buan(num) means: “a Prince (num) who uproots (bu) An,“ while En-tarah-anna can be translated as: “a Lord (en) who throws away (tarah) (the things) of An (anna).“  Thus, the new deity of water and wisdom came to overshadow the older god of creation and personal relationship.  And as the power of Enki and Enmens grew, so did the alleged abilities of the wonderful, magical “me.”

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