On two Aegean signs and their pairs in sumerian proto-cuneiform.


First sign,    Image result for The Ornamental and Ritual Version of the Cretan Protolinear Script Patrick C. Ryan “Proto-Language” sumerian sign GA2                                                                                                                                                                                             From Archaeology of Food: An Encyclopedia Karen Bescherer Metheny, ‎Mary C. Beaudry file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/Vessels_and_other_containers_for_the_sto.pdf                        “This frame or container sign is reletad to a symilar basket or box, namely the sign GA2”                                                                                                                                                                From  https://www.sumerian.org/sumerian.pdf                                                                               ” GA (pronounced nga,ñá): basket; house; stable (cf., ñar) [GA2 archaic frequency: 125; concatenation of 5 sign variants].
GA (nga,ñá): (cf., ñál, ñar, ñe26 and ma(3)) ”

From Sumerian Archaic Sign Table Patrick C. Ryan https://www.oocities.org/proto-language/SumerianSignValueRegister.htm                                                                                  “All available readings for Sumerian signs in Kurt Jaritz’ Schriftarchäologie der altmesopotamischen Kultur(1) (1967) have been listed in the Sumerian Sign Value Register. The sign numbers are those of Jaritz’ Schriftarchäologie der altmesopotamischen Kultur (1967)”

Sign No. 458 with sign value https://www.oocities.org/proto-language/SumerianSignValueRegister.htm  ba4, ga2, ma3, pisan, sita.

From https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html                             “Ladder” with many rungs:UR4~a

“Ladder”/4 rungs NAM~2                                                                                       “Ladder”/3 rungs: GA2~a1 KU~a KU~a@tKU~b1   KU~b2 NIGIN NIM~a ; GUR                                  “alike”: UR3~a3 ;                                                                                                          much Distant shape, but close to the above authors:         SANGA~a                                                  Only with the “same name”: KU~6a KU~6d                                                Don’t know why passed assyrologists gave name Ku to the above signs, also ku beeing (between other meanings) related to:                                                                                    – lay down, build and                                                                                                                            -the shine of metals

From http://www.sumerian.org › prot-sum The Proto-Sumerian Language Invention Process
ku: to base, found, build; to lie down
From cdli.ucla.edu › pubs › cdlj › cdlj2014_004 Lexical Matches between Sumerian and Hurro-Urartian … – CDLI by A Kassian 
 Sum. ku or kua ⟨KU6⟩ ‘fish

From is.muni.cz › jaro2013 › PAPVB_13 › Halloran_version_3 Sumerian Lexicon – IS MU by JA Halloran –                                                                                                                               … kug, : n., silver; precious metal; money; noble (ku, ‘to base, build’ + 

UR <> URU                                                                                                                                           From

http://www.sumerian.org › sumerian Sumerian Lexicon – Sumerian.org by JA Halloran                   << … city, town, village, district [URU archaic frequency: 101 >>

——————–                                                                                                                                                    In the paper:    Cretan Hieroglyphics
The Ornamental and Ritual Version
of the Cretan Protolinear Script file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/Cretan_Hieroglyphics_and_Protolinear_Scr.pdf

The first sign (‘038’) appears in many forms in Cretan Hieroglyphics, presented in
Figure 2 (Kenanidis 2013). It represented an ingot of non-noble metal that referred to the Archaic Sumerian word de(m) = {metal / furnace of the metal-worker} or de(ŋ) = {heat treatment of metals} and consequently the syllable ‘de’, noting that the last consonant of a word ending with a closed syllable was always silenced (e.g., Kenanidis & Papakitsos 2013,p. 37, rule 5.0.33). This sign appears also as an ideogram of Linear-B, numbered 140 and interpreted as “bronze” (the most common of metals of that era), and in Linear-A, numbered 327 (Figure 2). ”                                                                                          ———————                                                                                                                                             Misters E.Papakitsos and G.Kenanidis, found symilarity of all  Aegean “Ladder” signs (fig.2), (Linear A , continuing with Linear A PA3,,etc. )  with sumerian proto-cuneiform ladder signs to wich atributed the meaning “de(n)”, “metal ingot”.

From http://www.anistor.gr/english/enback/2016_2e_Anistoriton.pdf   Image result for The Ornamental and Ritual Version of the Cretan Protolinear Script

From History Of Copper https://www.copper.co.za/education/history-of-copper/                                                                                          A corroded copper ingot from Zakros, Crete, shaped in the form of an animal skin typical in that era.

From Bronze-age glyphs and writing in ancient Near East: Two cylinder seals from Sumer http://bharatkalyan97.blogspot.com/2013/04/bronze-age-glyphs-and-writing-in.html                                                                                                                                                 Folowing image, from http://www.crystalinks.com/sumercylinderseals.html

Despite the fact that others found in sumerian, ..                                                   ******************                                                                                                                 Image result for e.papakitsos g.kenanidhs Impressions of two cylinder seals (Sumer) and glyph of ‘ingot’. The person at the feet of the eagle-winged person carries a (metal) dagger on his left-hand, clearly demonstrating the link with this metalware catalog.(me: see that standard in the hand)                                                                                                                                                     and in Indus script Image result for e.papakitsos g.kenanidhs  Image result for e.papakitsos g.kenanidhs                                                                                                                                     From http://bharatkalyan1.rssing.com/chan-6237423/all_p398.html                                   śrēṣṭrī ‘ladder’ Rebus: seh ʻ head of a guild, Members of the guild (working with a furnace)                                       *******************                                                                                                                     …..and me also, that this sign could be related to metal ingots, the main difficulty arise from the  fact that the name of sumerian proto-cuneiform sign is not at all de(n), otherwise one meaning of KU is “the shine of metals” (for this meaning were used KU and KUG)                                                                               From https://drdudsdicta.com/2014/09/28/linear-b-decipherment-credit-where-credit-is-due/

From https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/fe30/d2e4e36be68271a1eb31d36ef003fc33ceeb.pdf Schmandt Besserat : “As KU3 UMUN2 :”silver smith”, sign KU3 it serves with greater frequency as 1/2 of a ceramic vessel used to store butter oil.”

From  http://people.ku.edu/~jyounger/LinearA/                                                                            *57 (JA)       *360, PH 17b                                                                                                        ; metals (unless A 327 [; HT 97a, HT 119] = B *140 [] AES bronze/copper)                    —————————–                                                                                                                      Don’t know why “passed away”assyrologists gave name Ku to the above signs, also ku beeing (between other meanings) related to:                                                                                   – lay down, build and                                                                                                                            -the shine of metals

From http://www.sumerian.org › prot-sum The Proto-Sumerian Language Invention Process
ku: to base, found, build; to lie down
From cdli.ucla.edu › pubs › cdlj › cdlj2014_004 Lexical Matches between Sumerian and Hurro-Urartian … – CDLI by A Kassian 
 Sum. ku or kua ⟨KU6⟩ ‘fish

From is.muni.cz › jaro2013 › PAPVB_13 › Halloran_version_3 Sumerian Lexicon – IS MU by JA Halloran –                                                                                                                               … kug, : n., silver; precious metal; money; noble (ku, ‘to base, build’ + 

I understand that from beginning of using  proto-cuneiform signs, this sign had at the beginning probably one meaning, was a logogram, but shortly, pressed by necessity, aquired + other meanings.Most basic meaning was probably related to base, earth,build as KU appears in signs APIN, UR.  (uru4:”to plow”).                                                                  See sign APIN  https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html           is composed of   sign UR        sign BAR or SZU and sign   GADA      !?                      ur(2,3,4)to surround; to flood; to throw overboard; to drag (over the ground)  bar:”outside” gada:”garment” !??                                                                                              Another meaning was related probably to shine, so used for fish (signs KU, GIR), noble, precious metal (sign KU3“Silver”) .                                                                          Even Ku/KUG suffixes were aded to kings names – KUGA.                                                                 Note                                                                                                                                                       I am quite sure that symilar phenomenom happened in Indus script with particle MIN, wich was used in the same time for fish and star, (so probably >> shiny?)                      No wonder if so many “fish-like” signs (SUKUD)and GIR  were used by sumerians and Harappans to denote social noble hierarchical degrees !?

CONCLUSION

NO, DE(m) / DE(n) for metal-worker-furnace / heat treatement of metals

SUMERIAN WORDS RELATED TO METAL PROCESSING :

From The Historical Background of Chemistry Henry Marshall Leicester –                               “the Sumerian word for a melting furnace, udun,”

From SUMERIAN GLOSSARY – OoCities                                                                                            < gir4-bil: noun, furnace man, stoker (‘kiln + ‘to burn’) gir5: (see ... ku3dim2: noun, goldsmith, metal worker (‘noble metal‘ + ‘to fashion‘>

From copper terminology from the Hurrian vocabulary.                                                   Sumerian word tabira ‘metallurgy’ … dinig [KILN] wr. dinig; dinig3; di-ni-ig “smith, metalworker; kiln, furnace; air vent” Akk.   

 From journals.plos.org › plosone › article › file › journal.pone.0083780.s007                      Etymology of Hunting and Farming Terms in Semitic … – PLOS by Y Bloch                          “…from Akkadian tinūru, whereas the latter is itself a loan from Sumerian DURUN “oven” “

From iris.uniroma1.it › bitstream A Handbook from the Eduba’a: An Old … – IRIS Uniroma1 by G Spada                                                                                                                        . <The sign lagab×im, dilim3 (Akk. tinuru), “oven, kiln”, presents a lagab-sign .>                    ————————

                                                                                                                                                                 Rather sign DE could be from:                                                                                    https://morpheus.fr/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/dicosumer.pdf                           de:”bring,pour,shape” m “pour libation on altar” or from    di [SHINE] RI: di5. 1. to shine Akk. naba¯t.u “to be(come) bright, shine” wich is the same as PIE root Dyw:

en.wiktionary.org › wiki › Category:Terms_derived_from_the_PIE_r…                           Category:Terms derived from the PIE root *dyew- – Wiktionary
< A. ▻ Ancient Greek terms derived from the PIE root *dyew-‎ (0 c, 3 e). ▻ Avestan terms derived from the PIE root *dyew-‎ (0 c, 1 e) .>

From *d-y-w- “divine, light” http://www.angelfire.com/rant/tgpedersen/dyw.html

*d-y- “shine, light”                    Proto-IndoEuropean
  dé             “to smelt”                        Sumerian
  dé, dè, dè-dal “ashes”                           Sumerian
  dè, di5        “glowing embers”                  Sumerian
  dè-dal-la      “to torch”                        Sumerian
  di5            “to flare up, light up; 
                  to be radiant, shining;
                  to sparkle, shine”               Sumerian

============================================================                             From the same paper:    file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/Cretan_Hieroglyphics_and_Protolinear_Scr.pdf                                                                                                                                                                                       “. Alternatively, the syllable ‘de’ was denoted by the metal-worker’s furnace
icon (sketch), both in Linear-A and in Linear-B,  numbered 45. This syllabogram has a similar form to the equivalent pre-Cuneiform one, depicting the furnace of the metal-worker and named, in Cuneiform, after the metal-worker himself, who was called “simug” (Figure 3). For a most detailed analysis see Kenanidis (2013, pp. 64-67). ”                    —————————————                                                                                                          From http://people.ku.edu/~jyounger/Hiero/SigngroupsNotes.html                                            : ADE=A-DE

From https://www.omniglot.com/writing/lineara.htm                                                                                                                From SlidePlayer The Landscape of the Gods – ppt download https://slideplayer.com/slide/16119683/

                                                                       Despite the fact that the sumerian sign send us to signs ladder KU, fish KU, sumerian minoans choosed another word  fish for ladder sign:

*þa: fish (not the usual word for fish, but the fish sign may get its syllabic reading of ÞA from *þ ‘many’ + a ‘water’ =
‘fish’, an alternative to the usual ku6, kua) [KU6 archaic frequency: 282; concatenates 3 sign variants].
þá, þi-a: numerous; diverse; assorted; mixed.

THE SIGN SHAPE, PHONETIC VALUES AND MEANINGS ARE THE SAME  Sumerian:PA/MANY, NUMEROUS  Aegean:PA/”All”

From https://is.muni.cz/el/1421/jaro2013/PAPVB_13/um/40794229/Halloran_version_3.pdf

*þa: fish (not the usual word for fish, but the fish sign may get its syllabic reading of ÞA from *þ ‘many‘ + a ‘water’ =
‘fish’, an alternative to the usual ku6, kua) [KU6 archaic frequency: 282; concatenates 3 sign variants].
þá, þi-a: numerous; diverse; assorted; mixed.                                                  ???????????????????????????                                                                                                             !? I AM DEROUTED; SOME SCIENTIST SAY THAT LINEAR A SYLLABOGRAM HAS PHONETIC VALUE PA3 ANTHER SAY THAT HAS PHONETIC VALUE NU !?                                                     From https://linearbknossosmycenae.com/tag/cretan-hieroglyphics/

syllabary like Cretan pictograms

From  https://www.sumerian.org/prot-sum.htm                                   nu: n., image, likeness, picture, figurine, statue.;  adj. & adv., no, not; without; negative.                                                                                                                     ???????????????????????????                                                                                                                   ———————————————————                                                                                           I found in  close shape, to sign/syllabogram “DE”:                                                                  proto-cuneiform https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html

SZA ( ša)                                                                                                                                                   From The Proto-Sumerian Language Invention Process “ša: “to dry”                                          ————————— 

SILA SILA      “E-SILA”:”road-temple” ?

CONCLUSION

LINEAR A/B SIGNS “DE”, NOT RELATED TO ANY SUMERIAN DE(N)/cause cannot found De(m), nor De(n), but to sumerian DE:”to smelt” , and   maybe also to file:///C:/Users/User/Downloads/Elementary%20Sumerian%20Glossary.pdf                                  dé “to pour”

Also could be related to sumerian sign ša: “to dry” and later latin Asa: 

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/asa#Latin                                                                     āsa f (genitive āsae); first declension  Archaic form of āra.                                                       ara f. (genitive ārae); first declension

https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/ara#Latin                                                                                             altar; sanctuaryrefuge                                           =====================================================

SIGN “PA3” is a PURE IDEOGRAM, or has ATTACHED A PHONETIC VALUE ?

From the beginning sumerian seem to attache to their ideograms & logograms. As was the case of sign  wich has the phonetic value “KU” . Coresponding Aegean PA3 sign, they say that has something close to sound “Pa”:

From http://minoablog.blogspot.com/2010/09/elegant-explanation-for-lack-of-r-l.html    “On the other hand, they certainly (Etruscan) or probably (Minoan) possessed a second series of consonants, not distinguished by voicing, but rather stress or aspiration. Linear A also used an additional series of stops – either stressed or (even more likely) aspirated. Thus the difference between -say- PA and PA3 syllables was that of *pa and *pha (or *ppa), while DA and TA likely represented *ta and *tha (or *tta).”

From paleoglot.blogspot.com › 2009/07 › new-value-for-minoan-d                                                        A new value for Minoan ‘d’ – Paleoglot
“… If there was a series of signs for ‘P’ (pa, pe, pi, po, pu) and ‘PH‘ (pa3,?,?,? … or partially assigned) linear A signs that could carry a phonetic value. ..”
                                                                                                                                                          From linearbknossosmycenae.com › tag › linear-a-tablets › page › feed                                        Linear A Tablets | Minoan Linear A, Linear B, Knossos …
“The numeric syllabograms *301, *86 & *188, of which the phonetic value is … MA 1, apparently entirely in proto-Greek and/or in Mycenaean-derived Greek … PA3 (PAI), which probably refers to pa3ni/pa3nina/pa3niwi Old Minoan (OM) = millet –or- spelt” 

                                                                                                                                                                     me:So the sumerian proto-cuneiform sign, got attached the same meaning as sumerian roots URU/ KU:”light/shine(of metals), noble” and got …after 500-1.000 years!… the phonetic value “Pha,Phai” as in Faistos. (pha,phai=”light, luminous-appearance”?)

Fαῖστος is ‘lighted
From turuz.com › storage › 0435-The_Proto-Sumerian_Language_Inventio…                                  The Proto-Sumerian Language Invention Process by JA Halloran                                                << .. nu11[ŠIR]: light; fire, lamp; alabaster. … VCVCV (e.g., urudu, ‘copper’ = ůru, ‘luminous object’ + dů, ‘to mould, cast’);.>>
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Cretan hieroglyphic No. 069 is sumerian proto-cuneiform sign
A (water)
==============================================================
Cretan hieroglyphic No.042 is sumerian proto-cuneiform
GA’AR
================================================
Cretan hieroglyphic No. 030 is sumerian proto-cuneiform:
NAGA
=====================================
Cretan hieroglyphic No.025 (TE), is sumerian proto-cuneiform:
SZE (Se)
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