At 9,600 B.C. there were not gods proper!

Scientists not know for sure if Gobeli Tepe’s T-pillars represented gods or not. Many of them (especially outside of digging field), due of pillars humanoid traits incline toward gods. In my humble opinion, we witness at Gobekli Tepe the very moment when humankind change faith from spirits to gods-worshiping. Changing from:

To/toward (of unknown age), maybe little later ? :

God? Spirit ? Or could exist anthropomorphic spirits ? Yes!: Wikipedia:” Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities. … From the beginnings of human behavioral modernity in the Upper Paleolithic, about 40,000 years ago, examples of zoomorphic (animal-shaped) works of art occur that may represent the earliest known evidence of anthropomorphism.

One of the oldest known is an ivory sculpture, the Löwenmensch figurine, Germany, a human-shaped figurine with the head of a lioness or lion, determined to be about 32,000 years old.” eugenrau: in animism there are also plenty of non-human entities wich were or had spirits ! From › pdf – SAGE Journals’ << (i) There are the anthropomorphic spirits, thought of as dwelling in remote and vaguely conceived regions and as very powerful to intervene in.>>

From › viewStelae: The Emergence of Human Figuration – UC Press E-Books … ” It’s no mere coincidence that these first figurative representations happen to depict anthropomorphic spirits rather than individuals proper. Hovering in that half-world between the here and the hereafter—between, that is, the human and the divine—they’re the first manifestations of an emergent religiosity. …. In that ever-growing “self-consciousness,” we’d begin carving our first deliberately figurative, anthropomorphic representations. At the very outset, however, it isn’t ourselves we portray but, as already mentioned, those guardians, those figures stationed halfway between the human and the divine.”

From › &#8230; Are there any hunter gatherer gods? – Mythology Stack Exchange << As you have enquired about the Gods from hunter gatherers period. There were no active high gods or deities as we have today. For e.g. from Hinduism perspective Shiva-Vishnu-Devi , or Greek god’s Zeus , Poseidon , Apollo etc. who are morally punishing. Instead they were following Animism. A way of life that believes in souls or spirits. These souls or spirits exists not only in humans, but also in animals, plants, rocks, geographic features such as mountains, rivers and other entities of natural environment like wind , fire , ice , rain etc. According to them all these elements were holding the power. In other words they were following “natural” religions ” These natural elements were their gods as we today call a god. Often these forces or gods of Hunter-Gatherers were having very limited powers were not omniscient ,omnipotent and they do not very much concerning about human affairs and morality. >>

From › me&#8230; Mesopotamian Religions: History of Study | “The earliest attempt at a comprehensive presentation of ancient Mesopotamian religions is François Lenormant’s La magie chez les Chaldéens et les origines accadiennes (1874). Lenormant posited an early Sumerian (then called Akkadian) animistic stage of belief in spirits that were controlled by magicians. The Sumerian beliefs in spirits that were controlled by a body of medicine men was termed by Sayce “organized animism.” The Sumerian word for spirit was thought to be zi, and “the zi was simply that which manifested life, and the test of the manifestation of life was movement” (p. 327). The spirits in those major cosmic elements that were considered good gradually developed into gods. The level of power of motion possessed by an object, or in a force of nature, was the test of its supernaturalism (that is, of the existence of a spirit within it). “

From › lec&#8230; Lecture 3: The Gods of Babylonia – The Religions of Ancient Egypt … “….Sumerian title of En-lil, “the lord of the ghost-world.” But it was a title only; the “lord of the ghosts” was himself a ghost, albeit the chief among them.The fact must be kept carefully in mind. As yet there was no god in the proper sense of the term. The superhuman powers that were dreaded and propitiated were ghosts only, like the ghosts of dead men; and, like the latter, they were denizens of the grave and the underground world. It was only at night that they emerged from their retreat, and terrified the passer-by. Primitive man fears the dark as much as does the child; it is then that the powers of evil are active, and spiritual or supernatural foes lurk behind every corner ready to injure or destroy him. The ghosts of the night are accordingly objects of terror, harmful beings from whom all forms of sickness and insanity are derived. But even these ghosts can be controlled by those who know the magic words or the mystic rites which they are compelled to obey. Between the ghost and his victim the sorcerer or medicine-man can interpose, and by means of his spells force the spirit to quit the body of the sufferer or enter the body of an enemy. By the side of the ghost, therefore, stands the sorcerer, who is at once the master and the minister of the spirit-world.”

eugenrau: sorcerer, the master and the minister of the spirit-world is the SHAMAN !

From › uploads › gobe…gobekli tepe 2021 – SSS TrnavaNot necessary needed a god, they had spirits. Inexplicable Similarities Between Göbekli Tepe, Easter Island, And Other Ancient Sites.”

From › …Rezultate de pe webGobekli Tepe – my uninformed ramblings | Knot Magick <<Although Gobekli Tepe was first noticed in a 1963 survey … almost universally suggested that the pillars represent higher spiritual beings.The second element of native religions is belief in spirits (in the plural). The world teems with spirits—both the spirits of dead human beings and ‘natural’ spirits which have always existed incorporeally. As E.B. Idowu writes of traditional African religion, ‘There is no area of the earth, no object or creature, which has not a spirit of its own or which cannot be inhabited by a spirit’ (1975, p.174). Like the Great Spirit itself, individual spirits are not anthropomorphic beings with personalities, like gods. They are not beings at all. As Idowu writes, ‘they are more often than not thought of as powers which are almost abstract, as shades or vapours’ (pp. 173–4). And spirits are involved in the world in a way that gods are not. Unlike gods, they are never separate from it, but always moving through it, or living within its rocks, trees and rivers.>>

Wikipedia/Divinity “Divinity as a quality has two distinct usages:

  • 1.Divine force or power – powers or forces that are universal, or transcend human capacities
  • 2.Divinity applied to mortals “
  • So divinity could be antropomorphic. As divinity=divine power, this imply that :divinity=divine power, later sumerian proto-cuneiform symbol “T”:”Me”, “divine powers”

From › article Enki in Ancient Literature – World History Encyclopedia “Enki is a god of Sumerian mythology and, later in time, … He was the keeper of the divine powers called me-s”

From › tools › archsigns proto-cuneiform signs sign “Me

CONCLUSION: As Löwenmensch has anthropomorphic traits and for sure at 32,000 y.o. was not a god, so T-pillars (slightly anthropomorphic shaped ) could be at the Gobekli Tepe very begining (layer III) not yet gods but spirits. Excuse me, again: divinity=divine powers=spirit(could have anthropomorphic traits)=later sumerian Me :”divine powers“with proto cuneiform sign “T“=T-shape Gobekli Tepe pillars

Another spirit with human traits: Wikipedia: ‘The Sorcerer (cave art)’:” is one name for an enigmatic cave painting found in the cavern known as ‘The Sanctuary’ at the Cave of the Trois-Frères, Ariège, France, made around 13,000 BCE. The figure’s significance is unknown, but it is usually interpreted as some kind of great spirit or master of animals.”


From Wikipedia Deity “Modern archaeologists now generally recognize that it is impossible to conclusively identify any prehistoric figurines as representations of any kind of deities, let alone goddesses.Nonetheless, it is possible to evaluate ancient representations on a case-by-case basis and rate them on how likely they are to represent deities. The Venus of Willendorf, a female figurine found in Europe and dated to about 25,000 BCE has been interpreted by some as an exemplar of a prehistoric female deity.A number of probable representations of deities have been discovered at ‘Ain Ghazaland the works of art uncovered at Çatalhöyük reveal references to what is probably a complex mythology.”

From Of animals and a headless man. Göbekli Tepe, Pillar 43 “After death the warrior’s spirits descended into the great underworld (the sign made by the Large “T” shaped pillars)..”

From › BlogGöbekli Tepe: Ancient Site That Predates The Pyramids Was Built … — “The site’s pillars may have been ancient totems representing either protective spirits, ancestors, or even constellations.”

From › …Masks of Exploit Göbekli Tepe & Pillars of the Pharaoh System— “Signs, the T-shaped pillars of Göbekli Tepe repre- exploitation, bringing about soil … perhaps to resemble the spirits of dead ancestors.”

From › …Göbekli Tepe, mankind’s first step towards civilization – Rampaging …— “Close up of human hands on one of the pillars, implying that they represent spirits.

From › books Religion in the Emergence of Civilization: Çatalhöyük as a Case StudyIan Hodder — 2010 · Social Science “While human figures do appear in the Palaeolithic paintings and in the ‘Venus … but there is no evidence of a central human divinity over animals.”

From › …PDFCreated using , a Free PDF Creation service16 dec. 2005 — “…suggest humans may have mediated with the spirit world, but there is no evidence of a central human divinity.

Disbelieve it or not, ancient history suggests that atheism is as natural … *People in the ancient world did not always believe in the gods, a new study suggests – casting doubt on the idea that religious belief is a “default setting” for humans.*16 feb. 2016 › news › dis…

Wikipedia Prehistoric religion “The Neolithic Revolution, which established agriculture as the dominant lifestyle, occurred around 12,000 BC and ushered in the Neolithic. Neolithic society grew hierarchical and inegalitarian compared to its Paleolithic forebears, and their religious practices likely changed to suit. Neolithic religion may have become more structural and centralised than in the Paleolithic, and possibly engaged in ancestor worship both of one’s individual ancestors and of the ancestors of entire groups, tribes, and settlements.” › document Art and Religious Beliefs in The Neolithic and Aeneolithic From…”The pottery published on this occasion showed that it is possible to … specifically choosen places for the ritual; they recognize spirits, not gods.”

From › Kac…Kachina Cult – World History Encyclopedia de JB Wiener — “Pottery designs dating to the 1300s & 1400s CE from the Hopi … are thus not gods, per se, but rather animistic and ancestral spirits.”

From › …Rezultate de pe webComplex Societies Evolved without Belief in All-Powerful Deity — “The emergence of politically sophisticated societies may be assisted by faith in supernatural spirits but does not require “big god” 

From › pages › R…Religion – Africa – Gods And Spirits – People, Divinities, Orisha, and … “In the divine hierarchy, divinities and spirits are ranked below God.”

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