Sumerian language and word “me”


The place of sumerian language in the langage tree even now is not precisely fixed, and disputed. From http://factsanddetails.com/world/cat56/sub363/item1526.html

SUMERIAN, MESOPOTAMIAN AND SEMITIC LANGUAGES | Facts and Details

SUMERIAN LANGUAGE


Sumerian—the language written in the world’s oldest written texts—is unrelated to any modern language. Linguists have no idea what language group it belonged to. Babylonian and Assyrian are Semitic languages.

 The origin of Sumerian is unknown. It was different from the Semitic languages—Akkadian, Eblaite, Elmamite, Hebrew and Arabic—that followed and appeared not to have been related to Indo-European languages that emerged much later in India and Iran. Only a few words derived from Sumerian have survived. They included “abyss,” and “Eden.” After Sumer was conquered by the Akkadians, spoken Sumerian began to die out but was later preserved by the Babylonians in sort of same way that Latin is kept alive by Europe cultures. It was taught in schools and used in religious rituals.

 John Alan Halloran of sumerian.org wrote: “There appears to be some slight relation between Sumerian and both Ural-Altaic and Indo-European. This may just be due to having evolved in the same northeast Fertile Crescent linguistic area. I don’t see any connection at all between Sumerian and Semitic. [Source: John Alan Halloran, sumerian.org]

From

Polish among languages of the world

Glen Gordon newer analyses are presented below :http://grzegorz.jagodzinski.prv.pl/images/nostratic3.png or from http://paleoglot.blogspot.com/2007/03/what-is-nostratic-theory.html

From https://www.lauravaleri.com/post/om-sumerians-and-the-sumero-tamil-connection Dr. K. Loganathan, a researcher in SumeroTamil studies believes that there is a strong link between the ancient Tamil language and ancient Sumerian and that Sumerian is, in fact, Archaic Tamil. Based on this hypothesis, he has developed a method for translating Sumerian tablets by matching a phonological reading of the cuneiform script with the ancient Tamil language, which he believes leads to a more accurate translation than the currently used widespread approach.

From Lexical Correspondences between Sumerian and Dravidian https://www.azargoshnasp.net/recent_history/pan_turkist_philosophy/sumd/sumeritamil1.htm

The last few decades have seen some important advances made in unfolding the mystery surrounding the prehistory of the Dravidian speakers in India. Evidence are accumulating to show that there are close linkages between the present day Dravidian speakers and those ancients who established remarkable civilizations in the Indus, ancient Persia and in the valleys of Tigris-Euphrates, called respectively Melluha, Elam and Sumer. The claim David W. McAlpin 91974, 1975) that the ancient Elam is cognate with Dravidian seems to be have been well received by scholars. While uncertainties still surround the decipherment of the Indus script , Walter A.Fairservis Jr. (1986) concludes, after a careful consideration of a variety of factors, that Dravidian remains the best possible candidate for the Harappan language.

Another conjecture that further strengthens the above hypothesis comes from J.V.Kinnier Wilson(1986). He claims that the Harappans and Sumerians were in fact the same people, that the Sumerians were in fact INDO-SUMERIANS, a small group of people who probably separated from the parent stock, the Harappans, settled in Sumeria and began to develop independently.

Now in addition to the above thesis of Indo-Sumerian, we shall propose here what can be called the thesis of Sumero-Dravidians; that sometime after the second millennium B.C. when Sumer was sacked by Hammurabi and taken over by the semitic speaking people who lived initially in Akkad, a substantial number of Sumerians came to India particularly the extreme South and today constitute the basic population of the speakers of Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Tulu and other  S.Dravidian languages and were probably the people who established the Sangam Culture around the period 800 B.C to 300 A.D . Evidences in favour of Sumero-Dravidian thesis are accumulating.

From Wikipedia

Nostratic languages - Wikipedia

=======================================================

GÖBEKLI TEPE “TAU CROSS” = SUMERIAN PROTO-CUNEIFORM SIGN ME

EXCAVATING GÖBEKLI TEPE | Saint Laika's

Image, from EXCAVATING GÖBEKLI TEPE | Saint Laika’s

=

https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html SIGN ME
https://cdli.ucla.edu/tools/SignLists/protocuneiform/archsigns.html SIGN URUDU

(PDF) THE UNITY OF HAMITO-SEMITIC AND SUMERIAN …www.academia.edu › THE_UNITY_OF_HAMITO-SE… Sumerian me (3,6,7,9) “battle” HS: OAram. mђ “to beat, to harm” 

From https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/aofo/24/2/article-p211.xml

From https://enenuru.proboards.com/thread/773/mes

The divine power over the human world is made concrete in the concept of the Sumerian
me“, a word which is translated into Akkadian as parṣu or with the Akkadianised
Sumerian expression mu. The Akkadian word parṣu belongs, in the first
place, to the cultic environment and designates a “rite”, a “cultic regulation”, an “office”.
However, its meaning also includes concrete objects, such as “symbols” or
“emblems”.
More generally, parṣu can mean “decision”, “rule”, “custom”.

In modem translations, the me is often rendered as “divine powers” or else as
divine decrees”, “norms”, “rituals”, “rites“.32 Nevertheless, the Sumerian concept
remains elusive, designating both abstract and concrete things, and, in some texts,
the precise significance remains uncertain.”

Hrůša’s footnote 32 reads: The glossary of ETCSL translates me with “essence”; the electronic Pennsylvania Sumerian
Dictionary gives as tbe meaning “being, divine properties enabling cosmic activity; office;
(cultie) ordinance”. However, the interpretation of me as abstract principles behind concrete
things, such as “essence” or “being” or analogically to the Platonic ideas, does not correspond
with the concrete thinking of the pre-philosophical cultures of the ancient Orient, that
generally avoid the formulating of overall rules or principles. Therefore, it seems to me preferable
to conceive the me in a more concrete way, connecting them with concrete divinities,
their attributes, and offices, rites and symbols of their cult.

Hrůša notes that Enlil is the primary holder of the me, although they also change hands:
“The supreme administrator of the me is the god Enli!, the source of authority and
power. It is he, less often the god An, who assigns the me to the individual gods. He
does this in the Ekur, in his temple in the city of Nippur. The me are assigned not
only to the gods but also to the cities and their temples which are the centres of the
divine cult and the earthly abodes of these gods. The location of the me in the cities
and in the temples demonstrates their cultural and cultic character.

But not only Enlil, other gods too can give the me to another god: so Ninurta
gives the me to his mother, Ninhursaga, or Suen gives the me to his daughter,
Inanna.” Numerous me were collected by Enki and deposited in his subterranean
residence, in Apsû.

The me which are assigned to the individual gods correspond to the performance
of the competences or functions of the respective divinities (the same goes for the
me of kingship conferred on a terrestrial king). The clearest example is the goddess
Inanna/lshtar, who, according to the myth Inanna and Enki, obtains from her father
Enki more than a hundred me: all of them have a connection with tbe divine rule
and cult of Inanna.”

However, as Hrůša notes, the me have also a cult connotation:
In many texts, the word me occurs in connection with the rites (garza/parṣu),
regulations/designs/plans (giš-hur/ uṣurtu) and rites of purification (šuh-luh/šuluhhû),
and seems to designate the “cult” or the “rite, ritual”, especially when it is a
question of the performance of regular cultic occasions (every month, New Year):
“Each month at the new moon the great me, my festival of An, are performed for me
magnificently.”

From https://cdli.ucla.edu/pubs/cdlp/cdlp0003_20160104.pdf me divine power, attribute, office; ‘essence‘ (G.
Cunningham, Analysing Lit. Sum. 76)

www.gravity.org › mythology › my… GRAVITY: Mythology and History – Gravity.org … from the former P-I-E homeland in central Eurasia, i.e. from an extremely landlocked region. … Similarly the Sumerian me means “ cosmic order” as well as “to act, behave,” “to be , say, …

en.m.wiktionary.org › wiki › Recon… Reconstruction:Proto-Dravidian/mē – Wiktionary Proto-Dravidian. Alternative forms. * mēl. Adverb. *mē. up, above.

https://ro.scribd.com/document/133167378/Sumer-Star https://docu.tips/documents/sumer-star-5c1126e98591f Sumerian ME — Egyptian MA’AT The Sumerians believed that Inanna brought from her father, in the case represented as Enlil , the Lord of the Gods, the fundamental requirements of human life and civilization, immutable manifestations of the divine will which were at the root of Sumerian society. These divinely inspired concepts were called me and include the Kingship and the divine, truth, law, rejoicing, the crafts, and a host of others.
The key to the Egyptian world was represented by the concept ma’at, a term which is elusive and which,
like the Sumerian me resists precise translation. Ma’at is order, balance, the harmony of the universe, a
discipline weighing of many elements in a coherent whole; Ma’at is also truth, for truth and order, in
cosmic or universal terms, must be identical. The hieroglyph for Ma’at is a delicate, adolescent girl, naked
but for a single feather in her hair. In the Egyptian creation myths the process began when the Creator
lifts Ma’at to his lips, and kissing her, thus the universe is born. In my research during the Middle
Kingdom 12th Dynasty King Amenemhet III (2000-1970 B.C.); the king is “the shepherd” of the people;
ma’at, “justice, right”.

Very interesting !…. From Adyghe / Circassian Habze Sjur Cappelen Papazian https://aratta.wordpress.com/2013/10/16/adyghe-circassian-habze/amp/?fbclid=IwAR28NZAJMDN_3uIHdY1ZgAxhSxOOIuPFzZZ5_qPD9Cc9aqAIzYTObZG_IGo

The Adyghe “hammer cross” representing god Tha.
Habze is a philosophical and religious system of personal values and the relationship between an individual to others, to the world around him, and to the Higher Mind. In essence, it represents monotheism with a much-defined system of worshipping One God – the Mighty Tha, Thashkhue or Thashkho, who begets the universe.
First of all, Tha expresses himself generating the Word or cosmic Law (Khy), the primordial pattern from which all the beings form naturally, developing by internal laws. Enlightenment for men corresponds to an understanding of Tha’s Law. Tha is omnipresent in his creation (coagulation); according to Adyghe cosmological texts, “his spirit is scattered throughout space”.
In Adyghe hymns Tha (Thashxue) is referred to as “the One everyone asks, but who doesn’t ask back”, “the multiplier of the non-existent”, “on whom everyone places their hope, but who doesn’t place hope on anyone”, “from whom the gifts come”, “His amazing work”, “the One who permits heaven and earth to move”.
Everything is One (Psora Zysch, Psora Hysch), and is one with the Tha. The material-manifested world is in perpetual change, but at the same time there is a foundation that always remains unshaken. That is the originating principle of the world and its Law. The always-changing world and its basis is compared to a rotating wheel: although the wheel is constantly rotating (changing), it has its central hub around which it revolves, which remains still.
An important element is the belief in the soul (psa) of the ancestors, who have the ability to observe and evaluate the affairs of their offsprings. The souls of the ancestors require commemoration, whereby funeral feasts are arranged (hedeus); sacrifice or memorial meal preparations (zheryme) are practiced and distributed for the remembrance of the dead souls.
The concept of physical pain or pleasure in the Hereafter (Hedryhe) is absent — the soul is granted spiritual satisfaction or remorse for one’s chosen path in life in front of himself and his ancestors.
Therefore, the goal of man’s earthly existence is the perfection of the soul, which corresponds to the maintenance of honour (nape), manifestation of compassion (guschlegu), gratuitous help (psape), which, along with valor, and bravery of a warrior, enables the human soul to join the soul of the ancestors with a clear conscience (nape huzhkle).
Etseg literally means “exact”, “true” in the Ossetian language. Din is a cognate of the Persian Daena and the Sanskrit Dharma, which represents “insight” and “revelation”, and from this “conscience” and “religion”, the Eternal Law or the order of the universe, equivalent to the Ṛta (“properly ordered”, “properly bound”) in all Indo-European religions.

From ON ТНЕ ORIGINAL МEANING OF SUМERIAN МЕ (lmages of Weltanschauung and the Methods of Тl1eir Study) V.V. Yemelyanov

<<The article discusses the proЫem of translating and int,:rpreting Sumerian МЕ Ьу means of the O\d
Babylonian cuneifonn vocabularies and the Neo-Sumerian Gudea texts. The main supposition is that the
word was derived from the verb МЕ «
to bе apparent, visible» and its original meaning was «will to live».
The author understands МЕ as the first stage of the life-process: transition of а subject from the inner
world to the outer space (as one can conclude from the cuneiform sign МБ «tongue put out of mouth»).
This is why МЕ’s are so important in the New Year period of Sumero-Babylonian calender texts.>>

ATTENTION, IT DOESN’T PURPOSE TO LOOK FOR DEEDS OR MORE OR LESS ABSTRACT AND ILLUSIVE, THE PROBLEM IS MUCH SIMPLER: LIFE AND DEATH About the shape of the proto-cuneiform sign in “T” (Sumerian reading ME) From THE LAND OF THE CELESTIAL GATES (Excerpt from the book <“Lion” Character in the Petroglyphs of Syuniq and Ancient World>)

<< ME – the ETSCL, which frequently translates the word me in other texts as essence=«էություն», has not translated the word under discussion and has left it as it is. H. Vanstiphout has translated it is as power, while I.Kaneva translates it in one instance as закон=law and in the other instance as обряд=rite. As a result Aratta has been described as “the mountain of the shining ME”, “the mountain of the inviolate powers” and “the country of clean rights”, respectively. Firstly, these descriptions differ in the meanings they express and secondly, if we look at it from the point of view of our issue, the meaning of me remains uncertain. In future writings we will try to show that it is necessary to use the “passage, fissure,aperture, door, gate, way” meaning of the ME cuneiform sign in this segment. For that, first we must clarify all the readings and meanings of all the words and then determine the complete meaning of the segment.>>

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