Vinca culture meanders, related to later Aegean labyrinth ?.


From  https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/meander                                                    a winding path or course   ; especially LABYRINTH
                                                                                                                                                           From http://www.merriam-webster.com › dictionary › labyrinth                                                         a place constructed of or full of intricate passageways and blind alleys.                                     ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~                                                                            Why humans needed from ancient time  to display such a tricky graphics and what was the meaning; how was related to averyday life or religion ? 
                                                                                                                                                              My opinion (and equally proposal( is as follows:
                                                                                                                                                          From most ancient time humans were enchanted, admired the cosmos and life show, got in extatic an prostation state before the sky. Life forms, direct visible could be touched but not understood. Life was magic .Life was represented and condensed in an image in different concret shapes, all close to entrails (a succesion of meanders), and represented “the nature matrix”, ( of human, mamals) the abode and origin of life.
Despite the fact that saw how humans appear and saw the birth, they thought that the first, original ancestor appeared from an egg, and their original-first mother was in fact a bird, bird-mother. Bird-Mother Goddess.
Tey associated  bird-humans-matrix-life
                                                                                                                                                           From https://eldermountaindreaming.com/2019/03/03/bird-songs-and-bird-tribe-shaman-women-their-culture-art-and-soul/
   
  1. uteruswomb
  2. dam (non-human female animal kept for breeding)
  3. sourceorigin
  4. listregister                                                                                                                 Etymology From māter(mother).

Also the course of life usually has with and apparent dead ends. Interesing enough they expected kind of second life after death. This would be either not easy, one must encounter challenges and pass over, for reaching the heaven at the end.

From pinterest.com   https://encrypted-tbn0.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSQDJspLtC6d9zOHi7XON7E7t0Q2YE1EQnKdn3PaPzkqnyrg-BA&s

Image result for labyrinth history vinca Vinca/rituallic bread

Other opinion:  https://www.crystalinks.com/labyrinths.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                                <<  A labyrinth is an ancient symbol that relates to wholeness. It combines the imagery of the circle and the spiral into a meandering but purposeful path.                       It represents a journey to our own center and back again out into the world                        A labyrinth can be experienced as the birthing womb of the Great Goddess.          Thus, the labyrinth experience is a potent practice of Self-Integration as it encapsulates the spiraling journey in and out of incarnation. On the journey in, towards the center, one cleanses the dirt from the road. On the journey out, one is born anew to consciously dwell in a human body, made holy by having got a taste of the Infinite Center. >>

From https://books.google.ro › books
The Life Of Symbols
Mary Lecron Foster, Lucy Botscharow · 2019 · Social Science
“… womb is represented by a labyrinth (Figure 11.13) which may also be a meander. … Early Vinca culture (Rast, SW Romania)

From https://docplayer.net/47130363-The-living-goddesses-marija-gimbutas.html

Image result for labyrinth history womb vinca
See
http://www.theway.org.uk › back                                                                                                                           The Cosmic Womb: Labyrinths and Rebirth in … – The Way

“The argument of this paper is that the labyrinth is the womb, and the rituals associated “

                                                                                                                                                                                   Image from newgrange.com
From https://books.google.ro › books
The Hero’s Quest and the Cycles of Nature: An Ecological …Rachel S. McCoppin
“… Neolithic Earth Goddess myths where the Goddess, as a representation of nature, holds the power to take life, but also to resurrect life”

From

http://www.andrewcollins.com › page › articles › sagittarius                                                                     Göbekli Tepe’s Vulture Stone – A Warning Across Time or …  by A Collins – 
Pillar 43’s imagery more likely relates to early Neolithic beliefs and practices concerning the soul’s journey from the earthly plane to the realm of the dead, something now accepted by some of the leading archaeologists working at the site.
                                                                                                                                                          From http://www.ancient.eu › article › ancient-mesopotamian-beliefs-in-the-afterlife                             Ancient Mesopotamian Beliefs in the Afterlife – Ancient History …
Conclusions                                                                                                                                          In Mesopotamian conceptions of the afterlife, life did not end after physical death but continued in the form of an eṭemmu, a spirit or ghost dwelling in the netherworld. Further, physical death did not sever the relationship between living and deceased but reinforced their bond through a new set of mutual obligations. Just as the well-being of the ghost in the netherworld was contingent upon offerings from the living, so too was the well being of the living contingent upon on the proper propitiation and favor of the dead. To a notable degree, these afterlife beliefs reflected and reinforced the social structure of kinship ties in Mesopotamian communities.

From neokoolt.wixsite.com › oldeurope › single-post › 2015/07/24 › VinčaTu…                                  Vinča-Turdaș Culture | Old Europe – Wix.com

                                                                                                                                                                   ” Gimbutas dated the civilisation of Old Europe from 6500 to 3500-3200 BC.                            It was at that time that the area was overrun by invading Indo-Europeans. The local population could do two things: remain and be ruled by new masters, or migrate, in search of new lands. It appears that the people of Old Europe did both: some went in search of a haven to the south, on the shores of the Aegean Sea, and beyond.            Harald Haarmann has identified them as being responsible for the rise of the so-called Cycladic culture, as well as Crete, where the new settlers arrived around 3200 BC.”
Later, in minoan civilisation, the labyrinth, beside the Minotaur lore, in fact was a temple of the Lady of the Lbyrinth :da-pu-ri-toyo Po-ti-ni-ya”, where rituals were performed.                                                                                                                                                  In many and many caves, if not were found double-headed axes, but also depicted labrys symbols.

From  The multi-symbolic profile of caves:  

spiritual landscapes, disaster environments and cultural monuments
Amanda Laoupi

https://www.academia.edu/33346853/The_multi-symbolic_profile_of_caves_spiritual_landscapes_disaster_environments_and_cultural_monuments

                                                                                                                                                                “2.1 The labyrinth as cave /cosmic womb

Caves being ambiguous spaces, offer both protection and shelter, but can also trap and imprison. Because of their location within theEarth, which many cultures have identified as female, the caves have been identified as the womb of Mother Earth, being associated with regeneration and birth. Although sacredness may have been invested in many other natural forms and objects, during the Prehistoric Times,the earliest known sacred places where shamanic initiations took place, are naturally-formed caves. The cave as spiritual landscape, acts like an ‘ interiority’. Its direction is inward,
 but it is also down and the cave journey involves ‘getting down’. The heart, womb, and
cauldron are all inward, earthy spaces.                                                                                        As such,they involve a directness toward core and awayfrom periphery, toward depth and away fromsurface, toward concentration and away fromdispersion.

Moreover, labyrinths appear in various countries throughout the world as a strong symbolic archetype. This mystical symbol is at once the universe, the individual life, thetemple, the town, human existence, the cave /womb or intestines of the Mother Earth as its counterimage, the convolutions of the brain, theconsciousness, the heart, the pilgrimage, the journey and the way. In its duality, it is cosmos to those who know the way, and chaos to those who lose it. It is Ariadne’s thread, whosewindings create the world and yet enable us to unravel it or ravel it… This symbolic ‘conjunctio oppositorum’ is the place where opposites such as life/death, light/dark, male/female, are transformed and melt into each other, in the dance of the spiral.                                                                                                                     The Cretan labyrinth had been a dancing ground made for Ariadne rather than for Minos .‘Homer compares the dance worked by Hephaistos on the shield of Achilleus to a dance made by Daidalos, because he had never seen more clever workmanship’ (Paus.         The paths in the maze are dances that are performed by the participants in the ceremony. These dances prove that though many paths are taken, and some are a dead-end,life continues through. This is the key of the Dionysian rituals, Dionysos being her immortal husband.                                                                                                                       In the original story, Ariadne was a Goddess,who provided guidance through the mysterious temple maze of ancient Crete, where she presided as priestess.                      Her famous spiral-like thread helped seekers to find their way safely in and out. The real hero is one who can keep hold of the labyrinth’s thread, not fearing it, but following it to find self-actualization, spiritualrebirth and love. Another version of the story of Ariadne makes her a Goddess and lover, but also a destroyer. The labyrinth is her womanly cycle, the cave her womb and Minotaur her heart. Therefore, the traveller of the labyrinth learned lessons of ecstasy, transformation and immortality “

                                                                                                                                                               Even later, From

http://www.stijnvandenhoven.com › 2015/09/23 › symbols-of-the-minoan-…                                       Symbols of the Minoan Goddess Religion – Stijn van den Hoven
                                                                                                                                                                  “The connection between so-called ”fertility rituals” of ancient Goddess cultures and deeper spiritual mysteries becomes clear when seen in the light of the Mystery Cults that were a continuation of the Cretan religion: Despite its use of ”fertility symbols” such as grains, the great concern of the Mystery Cults was the fate of the soul in death and its resurrection, its salvation, through the grace of the Great Goddess. The Cretan religion, again, was a continuation of the ancient traditions of Goddess worship in Old Europe”

=============================================                                                                     Si apoi, apropos de oasele gasite ?”langa?” tablite, se presupune ca a avut loc un ritualun ritual de ingropare secundara.

Din Resurrection through decomposition: The role of secondary burials in the journey to the Afterlife 

“For some cultures death is the beginning of a spiritual purification process that starts with decomposition and ends with skeletonization. The people in these cultures believe that before a soul can reunite with their ancestors in the Land of the Dead the body must completely decay.                                                                                                                                  There are typically two burial phases in these societies: initial and secondary burial.  During the initial burial the body maybe buried or exposed while it decomposes, and the funeral ceremony during this phase marks the beginning of the soul’s journey. Once the remains are completely skeletonized the bones are collected, cleaned, and placed in a secondary burial, like an ossuary.  After the secondary burial, the deceased is considered truly dead and the soul is resurrected to join their ancestors.”

===============================                                                                                                              From Genesis Encyclopedia: 30,000, Labyrinths, Spirals, and Meanders. pdf Joan, Eahr Amelia. Re-Genesis Encyclopedia: Synthesis of the Spiritual Dark Motherline, Integral Research, Labyrinth Learning, and Eco-Thealogy. Part I. Revised Edition II, 2018. CIIS Library Database. (RGS.), 2018   Eahr Joan

   Ouroboros.

Going on means going far,Going far means re-turning.(Tao Te Ching.)

Manifold Ways of Knowing.

The labyrinth is the winding, all-encompassing path;meandering here and there, moving nonlinearly toward, then away from, then toward the goal again-patient path that seems to enjoy its own winding [serpentine] journey. …                                                                           Manifold ways of knowing [that] …suggests the multiplicity of being [be-ing]– the vast possibilities of what may be realized in the form of concrete particulars.                              The winding labyrinth path that touches and depends upon each and every point of its area may symbolize the infinite possibilities that may be realized-an infinite appreciation of a pluralistic universe.

Wholeness.

Primary ontological assumptions: the universe is basically a single whole within which every part is connected to every other part. This wholeness includes every aspect accessible to human awareness –the physical world as discerned through our physical senses, and all the contents of consciousness.

Spiral.

[A]n elementary unicursal labyrinth as they have an indirect path leading to a hidden center.

Labyrinth Spiral Meander Origins.

The labyrinth can be traced back to the spiral and meander c. 30,000 BCE. This new prominence is supportedby further engraved artifacts and stones plus, cave finds.

Labyrinth.

Place of the labrys.

Labyrinthos.

‘Meaning [is] from the word labrys (labrys/lip)’ fertile womb of the Great Mother Earth.

Katabasis.

With each new spiraling re–turn or katabasis to mother earth, is the possibility of another Re-Genesis.

Re-Genesis.

The labrys is a manifestation of incantation rites and metamorphosis

or re–generative rituals. The emergence of the aniconic phenomena of the labyrinth can be traced back to the spiral and meander c. 30,000 BCE.                                                             * This new prominence is supported by further engraved artifacts and stones plus cave finds that include:                                                                                                                                 * the oldest ‘picture layers’ from the Altamira (Santander) Cave (EP: 295,                             * meandering imagery on a bull’s head from the ceiling in Altamira (Santander) Cave (EP: 301, Fig. 188, 300);                                                                                                                         * mammoths and bird goddesses plus other full breasted goddesses located in the gallery known as the Hall of the Hieroglyphs in the Pech –Merle Cave (EP: 52, 54, 295, 305, 397, 530, 538, Fig. 18);                                                                                                                                   * sixty spiral cupules from a rock shelter in La Ferrassie, Dordogne,France (EP: 136, Figs. 79, 138);                                                                                                                                                          * bird goddess with engraved meanders, Mezin, Ukraine                                                       * an engraved bone with a serpentine pattern of sixty-nine spherical indentations from Abri Blanchard, Dordogne in the Gorge d’Enfer Rock Shelters (TROC: 44-9, 54, 90, Figs. 7, 9, 10 a-b, 8); plus                                                                                                                                     * spirals, meanders, and goddesses from Mal’ta, near Irkutsk, Siberia.                                            ————————————————                                                                                              For a more in depth discussion and detailed images, see ARAS (The Archive for

Research in Archetypal Symbolism), http://resources.ciis.edu:2058/index.aspx.

ARAS record numbers include: 1Ca.002; 1Ca.003; 1Ca.008; 1Ca.016a; 1Ca.060b and

1Ca.104a. The keyword phase is, “meanders and spirals.” Also see ARAS record

numbers: 1Ca.061 and 1Ca.062, keyword is “Mal’ta.” * (For the first Re-Genesis

entry that includes the spiral, see 50,000 BCE, African Homo Sapiens Migrations

and Matrilineal Motherline. (RGS.))                                                                                                         ——————————————-                                                                                                  Further research recommendations:

Although c. 30,000 BCE saw a further development of the aniconic spiral and the

meander, it was during the Neolithic (8000-3500/3000 BCE) that the labyrinth and

labyrinthine engravings became more pronounced along with the coil, spiral

(oculi), snake, concentric circles, and owl goddess configurations. Selected

Neolithic labyrinthine ceramics, seals, sites, monuments, and other related

iconographic research includes: 6000-5500 Sesklo Seal (COG: 317, Fig. 1); 6000

sandstone sculptures with labyrinthine/uterine designs, Lepenski Vir, Serbia

Danube (PRR: 36-37, LOG: 157); 5790-5750 kilim with labyrinth design, Çatal

Hüyük Anatolia ARAS Record, 2Da.117; 5500-5200 ceramics, Bukk Culture,

northeast Hungary and east Slovakia (COG: 43-7); 5200-5000 meander/labyrinth,

Banjica near Belgrade, Early Vinca (COG: 313, Figs. 8-11); 5500-4000 ceramics,

Dimini Culture, Greece (COG: 25-29); 4500 Karanovo-Gumelnita square labyrinth

homes; 4000-3000 Locmariaquer, Brittany France; 4000-3500 Gavr’Innis (or

Gavrinis), Brittany France; 3800, Hal Saflieni Hypogeum, Malta; 3500-3200 New

Grange or Newgrange, County Meath, Dowth, and Knowth Ireland (COG: 214, Fig.

6-33 plus 298, Figs. 7-119; SOTG: 115); 3400 Egyptian tomb of King Perabsen (or

Peribsen) (MLW: 33, Fig. 38); 3300, Tarxien, Malta (MS: Fig. 55); 3250 Abydos,

Egypt; 3150 Tomb of King Ka’a, First Dynasty, Egypt; 3100 Stonehenge,

England; 3000 Avebury, England; 3000 Woodhenge, England; 3000 Troy,

Anatolia; Entrail-labyrinth, Mesopotamia (MS: Fig. 2); Rocky Valley near

Cornwall, England; Clear Island Co. Cork Ireland (MMG: 256; ancient Val

Camonica, Lombardy, Italy (LCS: Fig. 7); Naquane in Valcamonica, Italian Alps;

Mogor, Galicia (MMG: 256); Casal, Minho Portugal (MMG: 256); Lerfall, Ukraine;

Knossos, Crete; and spirals on numerous clay stamps. (LOG: 123, Fig. 193.)

Further research for the labyrinth and related BCE labyrinthine examples that

followed the Neolithic, includes: 2000, Knossos coin pattern, later apparent on

Gotland Island in Sweden and the US Hopi Indian tribes (TK: 82-83); and 1842-

1797 Egyptian Labyrinth Temple of Amenemhet (or Amenemhat) III (NLEL: 111-

120; LFS: 21). Egyptian meander hieroglyphs and possibly the first Greek key

pattern (LFS: 5-7); 1750 literary descent of Sumerian Inanna, Urak, Babylon (RAR);

1700 Phaistos Disk, plus Cretan palaces, labyrinths, and owl coins (MS: Fig. 51);

Dapuritojo (Lady of the Labyrinth) as invoked at Knossos (ETG: 26) and also

mentioned in the Linear B inscriptions (MHE: 138); Glastonbury Tor, England;

Labyrinth Court, Palatine Hill, Rome; Malekula, New Hebrides Island; burial

chamber Bryn Celli Ddu on Anglesey Island, Wales; 1000 representation of

Solomon’s Labyrinth (ARAS, record #5Do.002); 1000 BCE, Montegrande mound in

Peruvian city of Jaen; 100 BCE to 700 CE famed Nazca Lines in the Peruvian

Desert; and Oraibi Arizona USA. (MLW: 32, Fig. 37.)

Similar patterns of the labyrinth, labyrinthine subterranean passages, spirals, and

meanders continued to emerge for thousands of years on stone engravings,

numerous painted cave walls, and sacred sites in: Egypt; Africa; Australia;

Scandinavia; Turkey; Mesopotamia; Russia; India; Indonesia; Tibet; Greece;

Brittany; China; South America; and American Pueblos tribes including the

Hopis, Zunis and the Pimas. (LCS: xxii-xxiii; 24.)Selected CE examples include: the labyrinth mosaic of Theseus and the minotaur

(ARAS, 3Pg.001); 500 Villa of the Mysteries fresco (Villa dei Misteri); ‘initiation

and descent ritual’ of Roman women plus the House of the Labyrinth, Pompeii

Italy (ARAS record #3Pa.017); 9

th

century Samarra Mosque, Iraq (MS: Fig. 48); 12 c.

Gethsemane Courtyard fresco in Jerusalem; 1167-1200 city plan of the walls of

Jericho (LCS: 12, Fig. 33); 1200 Chartres Cathedral (TGG: 35) * plus the Cathedrals at

Poitiers, Amiens, Ravenna, and St. Omer (LCS); 1400 Notre Dame, Paris; 1510

vulva labyrinth design (MLW: 85, Fig. 127); 1549 Villa d’Este Tivoli Gardens (MLW:

116, Fig. 177); 1674 Versailles; 1699 Saffron Walden (best preserved UK turf

labyrinth), Essex England (MLW: 52-3, Fig. 79-81); 1899 Vincent Van Gogh’s Starry

Night France (MS: 25); and the 1991 indoor labyrinth followed by the 9-3-1995

outdoor labyrinth installations at Grace Cathedral, San Francisco, CA.

* Black Madonna With Child of Chartres, France was whitewashed in 2013 CE.

THEORY:

Kerenyi theorizes that the labyrinth, spiral, and meander are [unicursal] paths or

journeys in which one re-turns to the beginning. (D: 92-96.) Labyrinth means the

place of the labrys. (MTPC: 11: n. 7.) The etymology for both labyrinth and labrys is

the Greek labyrinthos, ‘a network of intricate passageways.’ “The palace of

Knossos was itself called labyrinthos, or ‘the palace of the double-axes and both

the labyrinth, a universal symbol of the uterine maze, and the double-axe (or

labrys), derive their meaning from the word labrys (/labia/lip),’” fertile womb of

the Great Mother Earth. (EW: 65.) Cameron adds that from this same “root comes

the word labia, the elaborate folds of the labia majora and the labia minora of the

vulva. The butterfly/double – axe symbol could represent [the] opened labia.” (SA:

10, n. 7.) Adding to the butterfly – labia consideration, archaeologist Sir Arthur

Evans “published a series of chrysalises, butterflies, and goddesses related to

chrysalises or with butterfly wings. (RN: 53-71.) He interpreted the chrysalis as an

emblem of new life after death.” (GGE: 186-7.)

In addition to the labrys symbols, ‘butterfly – chrysalises – labia’, the double-axe

conjoined at apexes is also a prototype of Cretan labia and a common theme

found in Minoan – Mycenaean art. The double-axe (or more appropriately labium

(SA: 10)) has two conjoined triangles at the apexes. Also, images of Minoan –

Mycenaean butterflies are frequently portrayed with double-axe wings or

conjoined triangles at the apexes. (See, MMRS: 195. Fig. 90 (41).) According to

Gimbutas, “these schematized butterflies are the prototypes of the Minoan double

– axe.” (GGE: 186.) The ancient symbols for the triangle, double-axe, and butterfly

may well be the X and V as first introduced in Re-Genesis 70,000 entry, Blombos

Cave followed by numerous other Re-Genesis entries as noted below. For

additional V/triangle/vulvic research, see (GGE: 186-7; LOG: 13; WAM: 116-8; ECLE.)

Further X considerations include Holy for the Goddess.

Concerning the use of the mark X in Near Eastern religions, Urs Winter,

  1. cit., 301 quotes O. Keel who discovered that the X on the forehead of

certain Near-Eastern statuettes is a sign, which identified the woman as

belonging to the goddess. The X, which in old Canaanite alphabet is the

same as, the letter Taw meant ‘Holy for the goddess.’ So were cakes and

breads also marked that were dedicated to the goddess. From the Old

Testament, Keel refers to Ex 28.36 and Ezekiel 9.4-6 where such signs

were used meaning a dedication for JHWH. See also Urs Winter, op. cit.

  1. 569 concerning remarks on terra-cotta figures, which may represent

baked goods with the sign of an X (TVG: 188, n. 64).The double – axe indicates significant objects of worship that were used for ritual

purposes in caves, mountains, and on altars in temple shrines including the Shrine

of the Double-axe and the Tomb of the Double-Axe. These and other labyrinth

cave sanctuaries are considered as prototypes of 12

th

century CE cathedrals. It is

also of note that the sizes of double-axes vary significantly. Many are either 6-8

feet tall (MAL: 30-31, Fig. 9) such as the ‘pillar culture’ finds from the Dictaean

Cave as discussed by Evans (MTPC: 9-13) – or – much smaller bronze or stone

votive objects found in conjunction with priestesses and rituals. Re-Genesis

suggests that the labrys is a manifestation of incantation rites and metamorphosis

or re-generative rituals. Interpretations of the labrys include the: labia; butterfly;

chrysalises; double-axe conjoined at apexes; figure 8 (eternity); earth’s center;

and the waxing and waning moon. Significance may be a homecoming to self and

mother (or cosmocentric matrix) that sparks or enhances be – ing and be – coming

as in re-creation i.e. thelytokous parthenogenesis/autopoiesis. This awakening

spark might also be compared to the “spark of the indigenous genius of

humankind” that each person embodies. (NHI: 155.) Self-actualized numinosity.

The re – turning journey to the labrys is known in Greek as the katabasis or the

descent. Metaphorically walking the labyrinth may have three stages including:

detachment; parthenogenetic re – birth; and then integration or a Re-Genesis

during the exit or ascent. In Mazes and Labyrinths of the World, W. F. Jackson

Knight links the labyrinth to death and rebirth themes as a: “microcosm of the

earth and a macrocosm of the human anatomy.” (MLW: 10; MLT.)

In death one returns to the earth, the mother, from which one is eventually

reborn. The presence of the labyrinth at burial structures signifies a ritual

entry into the earth; the labyrinth represents both the earth and the human

body as sources of life (MLW: 10; MLT).

Following Jackson’s theme that in death is the return to mother earth, *

propose the universal quest of all seekers and pilgrims to the womb – cavern to

reunite with one’s origins.

Because the journey into the cavern of the underworld [or labyrinth

Cosmic – womb] is the central human quest, the womb – cavern is the

archetype of every holy – of – holies. It is as though architecture has

recorded for eternity the forgotten goal of religion [spirituality] – to

reunite with the feminine [female] principle in order to transcend duality

and attain wholeness, oneness, and enlightenment (BT: 36).

* For an 11

th

century translation of a Hymn to Mother Earth:

Battaglia, Frank. “Goddess Religion in the Early British Isles.” Varia on the

IndoEuropean Past: Papers in Memory of Marija Gimbutas. Eds. Miriam

Robbins Dexter, and Edgar C. Polomé. Journal of Indo-European Studies

Monograph No. 19 (1997): 67-73. (GR.)

From the earliest, spirals, meanders, labyrinths, and labryses starting with ancient

rock and cave symbols and engravings are reminders of human’s “unceasing

preoccupation with the spiral order and his [one’s] spiral development.” (MS: 29.)

The spiral may also “be thought of as an elementary unicursal labyrinth as they

have an indirect path leading to a hidden center.” (MLW: 18.)

The spiral or labyrinth [and meander], depicted in ancient tombs,

implies a death and reentry into the womb of the earth, necessary before

the spirit can be reborn in the land of the dead. But death and rebirth also

mean the continuous transformation and purification of the spirit

throughout life; the alchemists use the word VITRIOL to stand for Visita interiora terrae rectificando invenies occultum lapidem. ‘Visit the interior

of the earth; through purification thou wilt find the hidden stone.’ Such a

descent into the underworld (the kingdom of Pluto) is the theme for most

initiation rituals, and is comparable to the passage through the wilderness,

or the ‘dark night of the soul,’ which is experienced by mystics [and all

soul seekers] on their path. It is furthermore [almost] always symbolized

by the spiral. Those on the columns of the Treasury of Atreus (a relic

which is still to be found in the volutes of the Ionic column) have a further

correspondence; by passing between two spiral columns, the initiate

becomes the central axis or pillar and consciousness and equilibrium, for

he [/she] has thus passed between two opposite pillars of the Tree of Life,

or between the coils of the serpents of the caduceus, and has thereby come

into direct contact with the Source of Being (MS: 29-30).

In a more contemporary light, the soul or spirit’s search for wholeness is an

ongoing labyrinthine journey back to the labrys that includes further

considerations such as the: center, matrix, matter or mother earth. With each new

spiraling re-turn or katabasis to mother earth, is the possibility of another Re-

Genesis. In William Braud’s article, “The Ley and the Labyrinth: Universalistic

and Particularistic Approaches to Knowing” he eloquently speaks to a spiraling

return (or nonlinear) process.

The labyrinth is the winding, all-encompassing path; meandering here and

there, moving nonlinearly [or nonlinear] toward, then away from, then

toward the goal again – patient path that seems to enjoy its own winding

[serpentine] journey. … Manifold ways of knowing [that] …suggests the

multiplicity of being [be-ing] – the vast possibilities of what may be

realized in the form of concrete particulars. The winding labyrinth path

that touches and depends upon each and every point of its area may

symbolize the infinite possibilities that may be realized – an infinite

appreciation of a pluralistic universe (LL: 1, 17).

Further research on the labyrinth, labrys, spiral, and meander: 30,000-25,000,

Aurignacian Age; 3000, Founding of Troy; 2700, Silbury Hill, England; 2600-

2000, Early Bronze Age, Crete, Chthonian; 2000-1450, Middle Bronze Age,

Crete; 2000, Asherah; and 1450-1260, Hattusa and Yazilikaya, Anatolia. For a

significant tomb with multiple spirals, see the Castelluccio tomb door #34 in Re-

Genesis entry, 19

th

to 15

th

BCE, Castelluccio Culture. (RGS.)

Re-Genesis research on ancient healing/re-generating centers, some more well

known than others: Anatolian Bursa, Pergamon/Asclepion, Perge, Pamukkale,

Ephesus and Bogazkoy; Egyptian Philae, Dendera, Abu Simbel/Abshek’s Sacred

Cave, and Kom Ombo; Roman Villa of Mysteries, Herculaneum, and Pompeii;

Greek Kos; Minoan Crete; Megaliths Stonehenge, Avebury, Woodhenge, and

West Kennet Long Barrow; ancient chalk mound Silbury Hill; Celtic

Glastonbury/Chalice Well, and Brythonic Bath; Breton Gavrinis; Eire/Ireland’s

Knowth and Newgrange; Syrian Palmyra, * and Iberian – Roman Alhambra.

* UNESCO world–heritage site Palmyra was invaded and seized by Islamic

militants on 5–20–2015. Ancient Palmyra was a major caravan juncture for

centuries, crossroad center of trade, dark–deity rituals, water–healing facilities,

and mercantile information exchange resource for Greek, Roman, Persian and

Islamic cultures. As a world–crossroad repository, Palmyra’s archaeology is/was

(?) an iconic legacy and archive of ancient civilizations.

Further underworld/labyrinthine descent (Greek, katabasis) research: 4000,Sumer, Mesopotamia and Myth; 1750, Hammurabian Dynasty, Babylon, Ishtar,

and Inanna; 1750, Ishtar; 630-620, Goddess Kore, Izmir Turkey; 528, Agrigento,

Sicily; 500, Greek Mysteries; 282-263, Demeter’s Priene Temple; and 200,

Greece and Pergamon, Anatolia. * (RGS.)

* For the matrix of descent and re–turned deities see RG: 37-48 CE, Mary and

Pagan Goddesses.

(Further research on the Pergamon mystery rites is pending, including the nearby

Amazon temple site at Myrina.)

Keyword suggestions for further research about possible cities founded by

Amazons, include: Smyrna (Izmir); Ephesus; Cyme (Side); Gryneium; Prjene

(Priene); Pitane (Western Anatolia; Mytilene (Lesbos); Troy; Samothrace; and

outside of Pergamum (Pergamon).

Further V/triangle/vulvic research : 70,000, Blombos Cave; 34,000-28,000, Les

Eyzies Vulva Engravings, Dordogne Caves; 31,000, Chauvet Cave and Vulva

Engravings; 30,000-25,000, The Aurignacian Age; 30,000-25,000, Goddess of

Willendorf, Austria; 8000/7000-5000, Early Neolithic; 7000-5000, Early

Neolithic Crete; 5500-3500, Cucuteni (Tripolye) Culture, Eastern Europe; 5300-

4300, Climactic Phase and Script in Old Europe; 4000-3000, Locmariaquer,

Brittany Hook Symbology; 4000-3500, Gavrinis, Brittany France; 2000, Asherah;

1900-1800, Dawning of the African Alphabet and the Aniconic Goddess Triangle;

1790-1700, Goddess of Kultepe, Anatolia; 1500, Lachish Ewer, Triangle, and

Menorah; and 800, Tanit (Also Taanit, Ta’anit, Tannit, or Tannin). (RGS.)

Further research on vulva images: 34,000-28,000, Les Eyzies Vulva Engravings,

Dordogne Caves; 31,000, Chauvet Cave and Vulva Engravings; 30,000-25,000,

Aurignacian Age; 30,000-25,000, Goddess of Willendorf, Austria; 25,000-20,000,

Goddess of Laussel; 5300-4300, Climactic Phase and Script in Old Europe; 3000-

2000, Cycladic Goddesses; 2600-2000, Early Bronze Age, Crete, Chthonian; and

400, Celtic Sheela-na-gig. (RGS.) *

* For additional CE information, see illustration of a 1600 c. vulva labyrinth

design in: Bord, Janet. Mazes and Labyrinths of the World. New York, NY:

Dutton, 1976. 85, Fig. 127.) (MLW.)

Further research on symbolic systems including the V/triangle/vulvic cave

engravings and gender emergence:

Caldwell, Duncan. “Supernatural Pregnancies: Common Features and New

Ideas Concerning Upper Paleolithic Feminine Imagery.” Arts &

Cultures. Geneva, Switzerland: Barbier-Mueller Museums, 2010. 52-75.

(SPC.)

Clottes, Jean, and J. David Lewis-Williams. The Shamans of Prehistory:

Trance and Magic in the Painted Caves. Trans. Sophie Hawkes. New

York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, 1998. (SOP.)

Conroy, L. P. “Female Figurines of the Upper Paleolithic and the Emergence

of Gender.” Women in Archaeology: A Feminist Critique. Eds. Hilary

du Cros and Laurajane Smith. Canberra, Australia: Dept. of Prehistory,

Research School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University,

  1. 153-160. (FF.)

Jabr, Ferris. “Ars Longa.” New York Times Magazine, Dec. 7, 2014: 18, 20.

(ARSL.)

Joan, Eahr Amelia. “Ochre’s Living Lineage: The Gyne-Morphic Bloodline of

Spirituality.” Publication, 2018. (OLL.)

Lewis-Williams, David J. The Mind in the Cave: Consciousness and theOrigins of Art. London, England: Thames and Hudson, 2002. (MIC.)

Marler, Joan, and Miriam R. Dexter, Eds. Signs of Civilization: Neolithic

Symbol System of Southeast Europe. Novi Sad, Hungary: Institute of

Archaeomythology, 2009. (SC.)

McCoid, Catherine Hodge and LeRoy D. McDermott. “Toward

Decolonizing Gender.” American Anthropologist 98.2 (Jun.

1996): 319-326. (TDG.)

Rubin, Alissa J. “A Mirror of Subterranean Wonders: Replica of

Chauvet Cave Bristles with Lifelike Paintings.” New York

Times, Apr. 25, 2015: C1-C2. (MSW.)

Tedlock, Barbara. The Woman in the Shaman’s Body: Reclaiming the

Feminine in Religion and Medicine. New York, NY: Bantam Books,

  1. (WSB.)

Further research indicates that ancient cave artists who made the hand stencils

‘were predominately female’:

Snow, Dean. “Sexual Dimorphism in European Upper Paleolithic Cave Art.”

American Antiquity 78.4 (Oct. 2013): 746-76

Further research on the double-axe including: sites and sanctuaries; hourglass;

butterflies; chrysalises; labia, labrys (katabasis); figure 8; X; plus, bucrania and

bull’s heads:

Evans, Sir Arthur. “‘The Ring of Nestor:’ A Glimpse into the Minoan After-

World and a Sepulchral Treasure of Gold Signet-Rings and Bead-Seals

from Thisbê, Boeotia.” The Journal of Hellenic Studies 45. Part 1

(1925): 1-75. (RN.)

Gimbutas, Marija Alseikaite. Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe, 6500-3500

BC: Myths and Cult Images. 2nd ed. London, England: Thames and

Hudson, Ltd., 1984. [The Gods and Goddesses of Old Europe, 7000-3500

BC: Myths, Legends, and Cult Images. Berkeley, CA: University of

California Press, 1974.] (GGE.)

_____. The Language of the Goddess. San Francisco, CA: Harper San

Francisco, 1989. 239-243, 270-275. (LOG.)

_____. The Civilization of the Goddess: The World of Europe. San Francisco,

CA: Harper, 1991. 244-248, (COG). (See extensive index.)

Nilsson, Martin Persson. The Minoan-Mycenaean Religion and its Survival in

Greek Religion. 1927. New York, NY: Biblo and Tannen, 1950. 165-

235and 195, Fig. 90 (41.) (MMRS.)

Further research on parthenogenesis/self-seeding/self-making/autopoiesis and 21

century routine aspects of self-fertilized eggs = two X chromosomes:

Capra, Fritjof. The Web of Life: A New Understanding of Living Systems. New

York, NY: Anch…….>>

 

 

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