The conception of the world and the sky for the inhabitants of Tas Tepeler.


Yes, it is the whole area with ritual enclosures and stone temples with T-pillars, called “stone hills” = “Tas Tepeler”;

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It is not inappropriate to say “inhabitants” because although it is not known how stable the dwelling was, it is known that they frequented this area. My humble premises, assumptions, opinions, hypotheses and observations would be: – Many hypotheses have been launched regarding the connection of the population and cult sites with the sky and the stars, in my opinion possibly exaggerated, inducing the idea of ​​a population with intense concerns and good training in the area. astronomy, and resulting less than for hunting. – The sky did not look the same for non-Western European populations. (see for example the ancient Chinese cosmological concept) If the origin of the Indo-Europeans was in Anatolia then we can assume precursors, beginnings and concepts in the same direction. – the stage of spiritual-religious development was the animist-totemist-shamanist one. Among the shaman populations, the axis of the world and the North Star were of the greatest importance. Because they were related to the afterlife but also to the spiritual journeys of the shamans. Then the correspondent of the polar star on the earth was the intersection of the polar axis with the earth, the “navel of the earth”. At 9,600 B.C. the north celestial pole was near the constellation Hercules (the star EtaHerculis) – the existence of an Axis Mundis does not depend on the existence of a bright star in that place in the sky – Of course the existence of asterisms / surrounding constellations was noticed and inscribed – I do not fight the claims that on the pillars there are stars and constellations (like some maps) – the T-shape which is the symbol of the complex Sumerian concept “Me” which at its turn had a total involvement in the physical and spiritual life of the Sumerians. This symbol and conception is definitely rooted in Tas Tepeler. – This symbol and concept Me, for the Sumerians: “divine, vital force, life spirit” was closely related to the activities carried out by the Sumerians and the inhabitants of Tas Tepeler in their holidays and festivals. – if ancestor worship was very much like worship of heroes, then why not a proto-hero-ancestor in pre-pottery neolithic. Similar to Ghilgames, as later was represented by Hercules Constellation >> – considering the period of time in which it existed, the Tas Tepeler hunter-gatherers society were  one of the highest organizational knowledge and technological level  achieved by humankind.                                                                                                        ===== D O C U M E N T I N G ======

https://www.uh.edu › ~cldue › hero… Hero Cults <<The worship of heroes was very much like ancestor worship>> GÖBEKLI TEPE’S PILLAR 43: AN ASTRONOMICAL INTERPRETATION Andrew Collins and Rodney Hale http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/news/P43.htm <<During the epoch of 9600 BCE the northern celestial pole was located in the constellation of Hercules, although no bright star was close enough to act as pole star.

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Figure 3. Schematic overlay of key features of Pillar 43 overlaid on a snapshot of the sky taken from the Stellarium sky program for the latitude of 
Göbekli Tepe for a date of 9600 BCE, its approximate date of manufacture based on radiocarbon dating evidence.
Schematic overlay of key features of Pillar 43 overlaid on a snapshot of the sky taken from the Stellarium sky program for the latitude of 
Göbekli Tepe for a date of 9600 BCE, its approximate date of manufacture based on radiocarbon dating evidence.

Hole in the Sky Identifying the ball as the turning point of the northern night sky makes sense of its role as the disembodied head and soul of the headless figure seen at the bottom of Pillar 43. In the shamanic-based beliefs and practices of tribal cultures in Siberia, such as the Chukchee and Altaians, the northern celestial pole is seen as a hole through which the soul passes to gain entry to the afterlife. Indeed, this “hole in the sky” was compared with the round smoke hole of a yurt or tent, through which the soul of the shaman, and presumably those who have died inside the yurt, navigate to reach the Upper World (Eliade, 1987: 17, 19, 30). Indeed, in shamanic tradition all three worlds – the Below World, Middle World and Upper World – are linked via similar such holes.>> I found a work that refers to Chinese civilization, although it refers to a later period than the pre-ceramic Neolithic. I think it is a very good source of inspiration: The Ancient Eurasian World and the Celestial Pivot In and Outside the Square:The Sky and the Power of Belief in Ancient China and the World, c. 4500 BC – AD 200 by John C. Didier http://sino-platonic.org/complete/spp192_vol1.pdf <<Chapter 2: The Power of the Celestial Pole in the Ancient World Sources recording early celestial observations undertaken in many world civilizations
support the proposition that for ancient peoples the sky, and particularly the celestial pole and its
circumpolar stars, constituted the point of center and/or origin of things, and also the ultimate
guide and source of solace for humans when they were astray, alone, or otherwise insecure in the
world. Essentially, people looked to the sky to establish their own context and thus gain a sense
of security.Part of such security seems to have been achieved when ancient observers across many
civilizations imposed their wish for escape from the natural earthly cycles of life and death, that
is, for immortality, on the one natural phenomenon that never rested, and thus never died, the
northern celestial pole. Such an immortality often involved the apotheosizing of human leaders
on earth such that they came to form part of a given civilization’s godhead. In other cases the
celestial polar godhead, while anthropomorphized, did not as far as we understand embrace the
spirits of deceased ancestral kings. In both cases, however, the northern celestial pole seems to
have served as either the font or seat of the perceived and projected universal high power. …… In the literature treating the history of the ancient development of astronomical science it is often
pondered whether the human impulse to observe, mark, and thus understand the formulaic
shifting of the celestial canopy originated in a need for either calendrical and navigational or
psycho-spiritual guidance. That is, we wonder, which came first, a celestially based calendar or a
celestially oriented projection of protective and guiding deities? …..As we have seen, such Lithic constellations would have marked the seasons and years,
but they might also have been simply practical measures to enhance identification of the
particular heliacally rising star that was significant to the observers. …. earlier people with even fewer clues to the workings of the universe that surrounded them also would have projected onto the stars a causal, effective influence over themselves and their earthly environs. As mentioned in the first pages of this book, likely this originated as not only a simplistic response to patterns observed in the environment but also a root psychological impulse to manage the feared unknown. In that such a process to a degree rationalized the universe, the causal relationship established psychologically between stellar phenomena and earth events lessened the extent and intensity of the unknown and thus reduced people’s fear of it. ….. p.200 Taiyi is the name of the god at the northern celestial pole. Residing in its station, it is called Taiyi. Since it constantly traverses the eight trigrams between the sun and the pole (i.e., between the solar ecliptic and the NCP, or throughout the heavens), it is called either Tianyi or Taiyi. ….p.203 In other words, “there was thus a tendency for kingdoms, capitals, temples, shrines, and
so forth, to be constructed as replicas of the cosmos. …. The Ancient Eurasian World and the Celestial Pivot In and Outside the Square:The Sky and the Power of Belief in Ancient China and the World, c. 4500 BC – AD 200 by John C. Didier http://sino-platonic.org/complete/spp192_vol1.pdf <<Chapter 2: The Power of the Celestial Pole in the Ancient World Sources recording early celestial observations undertaken in many world civilizations
support the proposition that for ancient peoples the sky, and particularly the celestial pole and its
circumpolar stars, constituted the point of center and/or origin of things, and also the ultimate
guide and source of solace for humans when they were astray, alone, or otherwise insecure in the
world. Essentially, people looked to the sky to establish their own context and thus gain a sense
of security.Part of such security seems to have been achieved when ancient observers across many
civilizations imposed their wish for escape from the natural earthly cycles of life and death, that
is, for immortality, on the one natural phenomenon that never rested, and thus never died, the
northern celestial pole. Such an immortality often involved the apotheosizing of human leaders
on earth such that they came to form part of a given civilization’s godhead. In other cases the
celestial polar godhead, while anthropomorphized, did not as far as we understand embrace the
spirits of deceased ancestral kings. In both cases, however, the northern celestial pole seems to
have served as either the font or seat of the perceived and projected universal high power. …… In the literature treating the history of the ancient development of astronomical science it is often
pondered whether the human impulse to observe, mark, and thus understand the formulaic
shifting of the celestial canopy originated in a need for either calendrical and navigational or
psycho-spiritual guidance. That is, we wonder, which came first, a celestially based calendar or a
celestially oriented projection of protective and guiding deities? …..As we have seen, such Lithic constellations would have marked the seasons and years,
but they might also have been simply practical measures to enhance identification of the
particular heliacally rising star that was significant to the observers. ….. earlier people with even fewer clues to the workings of the universe that surrounded them also would have projected onto the stars a causal, effective influence over themselves and their earthly environs. As mentioned in the first pages of this book, likely this originated as not only a simplistic response to patterns observed in the environment but also a root psychological impulse to manage the feared unknown. In that such a process to a degree rationalized the universe, the causal relationship established psychologically between stellar phenomena and earth events lessened the extent and intensity of the unknown and thus reduced people’s fear of it. ….. p.200 Taiyi is the name of the god at the northern celestial pole. Residing in its station, it is called Taiyi. Since it constantly traverses the eight trigrams between the sun and the pole (i.e., between the solar ecliptic and the NCP, or throughout the heavens), it is called either Tianyi or Taiyi. ….p.203 In other words, “there was thus a tendency for kingdoms, capitals, temples, shrines, and
so forth, to be constructed as replicas of the cosmos. …. p.204. Elsewhere Eliade even indicated in passing the object that he believed was the absolute center of
the cosmos to which the Sacred Mountain pointed and which every temple or palace recreated:
the pole star. … p.209 “The Polar Rectangle” ….. p.210 The palace of the Chinese emperor… [and] the heart of the South Indian templecity… each symbolized an axis mundi, an omphalos, about which their respective kingdoms revolved. Similarly, whereas in these cultures cardinal orientation involved the positioning of the sides of a square or rectangle so as to face the cardinal points of the compass, in ancient Mesopotamia it was normally the
corners of the enceinte which were directed in this manner. But in both instances the principle of cardinal orientation was strongly developed, the four compass directions were the reference points by which the sacred enceinte of the city was located in the continuum of profane space. >> Observations in Eddic Astronomy Niddhöggr, Yggdrassils Askr, and the Swan Song of Cyngus
by Dr. Christopher E. Johnsen
http://www.germanicmythology.com/ASTRONOMY3/Nidhoggr.html << As we know it is extremely likely that the Milky Way was seen as a road or river where the dead crossed over or traveled upon to reach the land of the dead. Cygnus is located at the northern-most reaches of the Milky Way, reflecting how migrating swans were seen to journey each spring over the earth. Worldwide in many mythologies, Cygnus was seen as the entrance and exit to the sky-world and perhaps the original location of heaven. The extreme north was where the dead went in the afterlife and they reached it by going to the Pole Star along the north-south meridian line, which splits the heavens in two along its longitudinal zenith. This cosmic axis of the Northern Hemisphere was seen as linked with the axis mundi of the terrestrial world, via a sky-pole, which has featured extensively in shamanic practices across Europe and Asia.>> The Polar Star and Human Migrations in Prehistoric Europe http://www.pienisalaliittotutkimus.com/2018/01/15/the-polar-star-and-human-migrations-in-prehistoric-europe/?fbclid=IwAR13326gRZRQvcA_phSaYCBm25mIYCjzH7tOyHf65Vz3rmXwoSqGAUk4uUk << The star constellation Hercules, which is seen up side down, can be conceptualized as a female goddess, not up side down, especially this relief:

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Comparing it to the Hercules constellation shows certain similarity, as an easy application of the common observation that in the stars you can see what you want to see. The arrows point out something that is not obvious. The right tight in the relief is bulged, which can be explained by the stars of Hercules, and the drinking horn is there, though in another position.

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http://www.pienisalaliittotutkimus.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/01/goddess.png

Hercules was the constellation closest to the celestial North Pole until the polar star moved to Draco, so we should find two constellations, Hercules and Draco. A Gravettian statue known as Balzi Rossi Beuty and the Beast shows a woman and a snake. The figures are connected from the head and legs. Draco is close to Tau Herculis, which is a star in the woman’s head. Draco does not connect to the woman’s feet, but there is another snake shaped constellation close to the feet, Serpent’s Caput. While it may not be so obvious from the drawing, there is no mistake in identifying one figure as the woman by the breasts, navel and buttocks and the snake by the snake head and scales in the body.

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….. After Gravettian there were the Solutrean and Magdalenian cultures which were already discussed. Let us jump to the new migration around 12,000 BC.  It is the time when Vega was the polar star. >> Tau Herculis https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tau_Herculis << Tau Herculis is located within 1° of the precessional path traced across the celestial sphere by the Earth’s North pole. It could have served the northern pole star around the year 7400 BCE >>

Image, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tau_Herculis
Picture, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vega

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vega << Vega was the northern pole star around 12,000 BCE >> ME’s and the Spring Festivals (Summary of Habilitation and Russian book). St.-Petersburg, Orientalia, 2009

Vladimir Emelianov

Vladimir Emelianov https://www.academia.edu/194319/MEs_and_the_Spring_Festivals_Summary_of_Habilitation_and_Russian_book_St_Petersburg_Orientalia_2009?fbclid=IwAR1NkOC0ZNcaOJLHP2LpLuwIEQbgrMO0_LcGedWIuOR25Q0to3fXtRllOZ0 <<Chapter II ME’S IN SUMERIAN SOURCES

Here we will review the basic properties or attributes of the prephilosophical categories of Ancient Near Eastern culture, and the most perspective approaches to their studying. It is impossible to study suchfundamental categories as Egyptian ,, Sumerian me,nam, Elamic kiten, Chinese dao,de, applying philosophical or logical methods. …… The МЕ category is one of the most complex and multidimensional problems in cuneiform studies. Its translation, etymology, unity of theabstract and concrete sense in one concept, the semiotic space of thecategory and its probable dynamics within the borders of Mesopotamianculture contain one big problem for Sumerology. МЕ is connected to allinstitutions of civilization in Mesopotamia – the government, the court,military activity, crafts, rituals, literacy, and also to some human actionsand character traits. The whole “shape” of the civilization depends on MEas well as the prenatural laws and principles of cosmic life. ….. Then, let’s examine J. Klein’s hypothesis about МЕ as a special object which, in the reseacher’s opinion, should be “a two-dimensional symbol or an image cut or drawn on a banner or standard and designating abstractconcept hidden in it”. ….. Chapter V GODS AS HEROES OF SUMERIAN SPRING RITUALS All Sumerian texts results in the following consecutive actions:1. Preliminary reception of МЕ’s (from the senior god, or the senior  brother, or an ancestor).2. Fight for МЕ’s with a certain villain living in the highlands.3. Victory over the villain and capture of trophies.4. Solemn delivery of the trophies into a temple of the senior god (anancestor or the entity the ME had been received from).5. The need for authority and reception of signs of power.

The Pathos of the divine existence in Mesopotamiahttps://novaresearch.unl.pt › files › The_Pathos_o…PDF by IG de Almeida — 4 <<According to Emelianov (2007, 1109-1110), melammu finds its roots in a Sumerian composite name, me– lam, where me stands for vital force, and lam for fire >>

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