Gobekli, Karahan Tepe cupules

See Cupules Definition, Description & History of Cupule Rock Art. http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/prehistoric/cupules.htm (PDF) Cupules – ResearchGate https://www.researchgate.net › 281317650_Cupules

From Cupules—- the oldest surviving rock art ROBERT G. BEDNARIK https://originsnet.org/Bednarik%20cupules%202002.pdf

<< Cupules (Fig. 1) are the earliest surviving rock art we know about in the world, but this does not necessarily make them the first rock art produced.The oldest rock art we know about in every continent are linear grooves and cupules, especially the latter. It can date from Middle and even Lower Palaeolithic times in the three Old World three continents, so it is very considerably older than the celebrated Upper Palaeolithic art of south-western Europe. This has become evident despite the considerable bias against such forms of rock art, which have often been ignored by researchers, misunderstood or explained as utilitarian rock markings.However, cupules are such a ubiquitous feature in world rock art that they were made in many periods, and considerable experience is required to estimate their age (Bednarik 1997a, 2000). Numerically they are probably the most common forms of surviving rock art in the world, and they can be found not only in very early and archaic traditions, but also in very recent ones. In India, for example, cupules occur in the Pleistocene, but most are from the Holocene, and they were made from Acheulian to Historic times. In many parts of Europe, cupules are particularly numerous in the Metal Ages. It is therefore false to assume that cupules are always an indication of archaic traditions.
It is also very doubtful that all cupules were made for similar purposes, and it is even possible that some of those found on horizontal surfaces were used for some utilitarian process. However, there are distinct differences between cupules and grinding hollows. The latter occur on near-horizontal surfaces only and are well over 10 cm in size, whereas cupules are frequently found on vertical walls and rarely exceed 10 cm diameter.

================== From Resonance at Göbekli Tepe, Turkey Göbekli Tepe Hieroglyphs by Alex Putney 

and images:

Göbeklitepe için 230 fikir | arkeoloji, tarih öncesi, antik tarih
Gobekli Tepe Post Holes | Göbekli tepe, Ancient near east, Ancient  civilizations
Göbekli Tepe'ye beton döküldü” paylaşımına Bakanlıktan açıklama - Yeşil  Gazete

The function of large cupules has eluded researchers for many years, and cannot simply be grinding holes since they are found in great numbers marking vertical wall surfaces as well as horizontal surfaces. >>

Eugen Rau: If large diameters ,larger than 10 cm could indicate as possible grinding purposes, they are too many, one beside another and vicinity of large basins are indicating fertility-increase rituals and rain related ?

https://books.google.ro › books Theory in Africa, Africa in Theory: Locating Meaning in Archaeology Stephanie Wynne-Jones, Jeffrey Fleisher — 2015 · Social Science << But when normal rituals and medicines consistently failed and droughts … There are often many cupules because the rainmakers had to start again each time and make new ones.>>

Increase Ritual – Australia: The Land Where Time Beganhttps://austhrutime.com › ritual_increase

Karahan Tepe: Göbekli Tepe’s Sister Site – Another Temple of the Stars? https://www.academia.edu/8030198/Karahan_Tepe_G%C3%B6bekli_Tepes_Sister_Site_Another_Temple_of_the_Stars <<Karahan Tepe Northern Knoll
The exposed surface of this knoll marks the beginning of an extensive area of bedrock covered with groupings of deeply bored cupules, or cup marks, usually 15 to 20 centimetres (6 to 8 inches) in diameter and easily as much in depth (see fig. 5). Similar cupules are found on exposed bedrock at Göbekli Tepe, close to Enclosure E, the so-called Felsentempel (“Rock Temple”), and also at other Pre-Pottery Neolithic sites such as Başaran Höyük (Güler,Çelik & Güler, 2013, 295, fig. 11) and Hamzan Tepe(Çelik, 2010, 262, fig. 6), both located in the Sanlıurfa province. ……

Other, much larger holes, ranging in diameter from between 40 to 50 centimetres (15 to 20 inches),are also present within the exposed bedrock. At least three sets are placed together in pairs, giving them the eerie resemblance of dark eyes gazing up at the beholder, a fact that, regardless of their true function, seems deliberate (see fig. 6). In addition to this, we find a large basin cut into the bedrock, which is oval in shape and approximately 3 metres (9.85 feet) across its widest part. It probably functioned as a water cistern, although this is simply conjecture at this time (two similar rock-cut basins are to be seen close to cupule clusters at Göbekli Tepe, and another three exist at Hamzan Tepe, again near groupings of cupules, see Çelik, 2010, 262-3, Figs. 7/8).>>

From Rita Robert’s Blog Göbekli Tepe, Mother of Myths? https://spredtetanker.wordpress.com/2012/03/30/gobekli-tepe-mother-of-myths/

The shepherd and his family live in a small schack at the bottom of the excavation area, near the “parkinglot”. Just inside the stone-fencing there are several carvings in the bedrock. Two enormous holes, big enough to be used as pools, and along these houndreds of small circular holes of different sizes and placements dug directly in the rock.

Cupules are found at Gobekli Tepe also on portholes Image from https://ro.pinterest.com/pin/383650461991428519/

Göbekli Tepe: Turkey's Stonehenge, But At Least 7000 Years Older | Göbekli  tepe, Ancient aliens, Ancient civilizations


Handbook of Rock Art Research – Page 371 – Google Books Resulthttps://books.google.ro › booksDavid S. Whitley · 2001 · ‎ScienceFound on every continent except perhaps Antarctica, cupules have been attributed to efforts to entice rain, promote fertility, and symbolize the transition to adult .

PDF) Cupules—- the oldest surviving rock art Cupules—- the …https://www.researchgate.net › publication › 251250562_…May 14, 2015 — rallel grooves into selected ‘rain rocks’ to increase. or decrease snowfall, and they pounded cupules to. induce rainfall and wind (Heizer 1953).

Research Issues in San Diego Prehistory – Cupuleshttps://www.sandiegoarchaeology.org › funct.cupule.htm

  1. Heizer (1953) noted that some northern California groups, including the Shasta, made cupules as “rain rocks” to control weather. — E. Breck Parkman (1992, 1993) 

A SHORT ETHNOGRAPHY OF CUPULEShttp://www.ifrao.com › uploads › 2018/01

Twyfelfontein Namibia – Conclusion 2 – Bradshaw Foundationhttps://bradshawfoundation.com › cupules_engravings

https://openresearch-repository.anu.edu.au › …PDF ORIGINS OF SEDENTISM – ANU Open Research de RD Wickham · 2019 — attired shaman figures engaged in rain- bringing ceremony

Imagining Rain-Places: Rain-Control and Changing … – JSTORhttps://www.jstor.org › stable

CUPULES ON TOP OF T-PILLARS LEAVE THE ONLY POSSIBILITY to be RAIN & FERTILITY RELATED Image, from SHRINE STONE PRESS https://shrinestonepress.com/cupules/ <<Cupules are an enigmatic style of rock art that is found universally throughout the entire archaeological world. Here in California they are known as “bedrock mortars,” a central part of the acorn grinding indigenous cultures that are well known here. Throughout the world cupules are commonly attributed to the work of ancient peoples and their “primitive” methods of food production, but there are currently no known methods to date them and they have been passed over for generations as little more than “curiousities,” barely worth a mention. It can be readily seen, though, that many of the cupules could possibly have some other unknown function, or perhaps even some other unknown age, that is yet to be revealed. For example, in a brief survey of a very few sites here in California one can observe that many of them would appear to be too small for any sort of food production and they can also be seen in groupings or arrangements that would seem to suggest something more. Many of the arrangements can also be found on the vertical sides of boulders where, once again, any efficient means of food production would would have to be questioned, if not ruled out. But what stands out again and again even more is that this form of rock art shows up at the most ancient, most enigmatic and the most sacred sites found all over the world. They appear in the most highly-ritualized and sacred ceremonial settings on every continent (and many islands) from the famous stone Moai of Easter Island, to the megalithic, Olmec heads of Mesoamerica, to the giant stone pillars of Göbekli Tepe, in Turkey, even possibly to the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. There are tens of thousands of other sites known to exist all around the world. Here in the following photos are a few sites that are found here in Sonoma County, California, as well as a few from my own travels abroad where I have been somewhat surprised to find them. And finally, I’ve included a few other photos of cupules from other important sites to be found around the world.>>

At Gobekli Tepe there is no water source in the vicinity !

From Cliff Richey 19. November 2017 at 2:17 https://www.dainst.blog/the-tepe-telegrams/2016/10/14/of-animals-and-a-headless-man-gobekli-tepe-pillar-43/

<<The Sun played an important role in the ascension of the deceased warriors. After death the warrior’s spirits descended into the great underworld (the sign made by the Large “T” shaped pillars) and were carried by currents or “the crisscrossing streams of water” (the Net of crisscrossing Serpents depicted by one pillar). Ultimately the spirits arrived back at the earth’s surface at a spring site or a pool of water (perhaps the cistern at Gobekli Tepe that is surround by the Triangular three cupules that indicate, female-spirits. especially when the cupules, female-water-spirits, are filled with rain water or water taken from the cistern) where the spirits wait for the Sun to take the water (evaporation) and the spirit up to the sky and Venus. The evaporation of the water from the cupules demonstrated the validity of the cosmology.>>

From Gobekli Tepe’s Pillar 18 Dissected Cliff Richey https://www.academia.edu › Gobekli_Tepes_Pillar_18_… <<The Tops of the Gobekli Tepe Pillars are covered with Cupules that are the sign for, moisture or wetness. It is composed of many (red) Triangular, female-spirit, signs. When it rained this combination of signs would become, the Horizontal Rectangle, the horizontal-place, positional, on the surface, holding, the female-water-spirits, as in bowls. The utility of these signs would be lost if the Pillars had been roofed over. The tops of the smaller “T” shaped Pillars are almost level with the surrounding surface of the ground. The meaning of the “T” as a gesture sign for the Large, the great, “T”, below, the great underworld.

……On the horizontal -place or surface are the (red) Cupules that in their overall Form indicate the sign for, moisture, and it is filled with the Triangular signs for, female-moisture-spirits.5 It seems that the concept is one where after a rain the Cupules are filled with water and become, female-waterspirits. At Gobekli Tepe Cupules and a Cistern are in close proximity to each other, There may have been some ritual that during dry periods, involved transfer of water from the Cistern to the Cupules in order to demonstrate evaporation (the ascension of the spirits in the water that was part of the ancient cosmology).>>

From Göbekli Tepe – the Stone Age Sanctuaries. New results of ongoing excavations with a special focus on sculptures and high reliefs Klaus Schmidt https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/294839319.pdf

Göbekli Tepe – the Stone Age Sanctuaries. New results of ongoing  excavations with a special focus on sculptures and high reli
Fig. 23. Enclosure B and its portholestone in centre (foto Irmgard Wagner, DAI).

https://www.facebook.com/983492441702514/posts/3671326896252375/ Also, I also believe from my research these cupules found at Gobekli Tepe and Karahan Tepe are a Natufian attribute, which hopefully I will be able to write about one day. …… #158 Here is my latest paper called ‘Gobekli Tepe’s Vulture Stone: Deciphering the Mysteries of the Vulture Stone by tracing the Zarzian and Natufian’s connection that effectuated the construction and demise of Gobekli Tepe.‘ In this document I will outline a connection between the elite Zarzian shamanic priests and their subjects the Natufians as those who built Gobekli Tepe. By mapping the origins of an ancient obsidian trade in the Anatolians and the Levant.


Out of tens posibilities for purposes (see R.G. Bednarik list of all potential interpretations of cupules at the end of the page)…. we have at Gobekli and Karahan Tepe, two category/kinds of cupules: 1) not proper cupules, (“tacitas“) because diameter is larger than 2-10 cm (10-20-40cm…+ blarge basin 3m) To see the difference betwen cupules and tacitas, TACITAS OR CUPULES – Rupestrewebhttps://www.rupestreweb.info › tacitas Tacitas or cupules? an attempt at distinguishing cultural depressions at two rock art sites near Ovalle, Chile. Maarten van Hoek vanhoekrockart@parelnet.nl.

The significance of the morphometric and contextual variation in stone hewn mortars during the Natufian-PPNA transition in the southern Levant https://www.researchgate.net/publication/314164064_The_significance_of_the_morphometric_and_contextual_variation_in_stone_hewn_mortars_during_the_Natufian-PPNA_transition_in_the_southern_Levant <<Numerous explanations have been advanced regarding the use of ancient and recent bedrock features. However, while it is clear that bedrock features were indeed used for many functions including the processing of various substances, it seems that the most common utilization was pounding and pulveraizing food. In the Levant the bedrock features appear for the first time in Early Natufian sites around 15,000 years Cal BP, within the context of the transition to sedentary lifeways. The communities that adopted greater dependency on local resources brought about changes in various practices and aspects of both mundane and ritual behaviors.>>

The Function and Context of Natufian Stone Mortars: A Reply to …https://www.x-mol.com › paperRedirectAre the numbered specimens Natufian mortars, cup marks, or cupules? What do the “complexes” mean, and how were they defined? <<…’most of the Natufian bedrock features and boulder mortars as related, in a way or another, to food processing in its broader sense’ …..’some may have had a more ceremonial role than a mundane function’ >> In my opinion: THESE SHALLOWS/DIMPLES/BUCKETS HAD RATHER UTILITARIAN THAN CULTIC PURPOSES ( Possible rain-bringing rituals but rather for grinding purposes )

2) cupules proper ; under 10cm (2-10 cm). – on top of T-pillars – on portholes rims

Those were used in cultic rituals possible performed by shamans, with known (by them) purposes, e.g. increase/fertility rituals or unknown, forgotten even by them purpose but of high sacred value/importance. -cupules had a history of hundred of thousend years & purposes , meanings changed fergotten new one apperead then lost, forgotten, so could be e.g. : – for holy water, ancestor-funerary context, magical charms , symbolisms that are no longer recoverable , rain bringing=life sustenance=fertility, welfare/wellness/wellbeing ========================

The interpretation of cupules https://www.researchgate.net/publication/322343171_The_interpretation_of_cupules Robert G. Bednarik << A list of potential interpretations of cupules
The most commonly mentioned interpretations of cupules found in the literature could be grouped into a number of
classes, based on their purported uses.

  1. Unspecified or specified cultic or magic rituals
    1.1: Components of sacrificial altars.
    1.2: Human or animal blood sacrifices.
    1.3: Meeting places of witch covens.
    1.4: Magical charms protecting dwellings against witchcraft.
    1.5: Fertility rituals related to rockslides, which are thought
    to occur widely in Europe, Africa and South America.
    1.6: Ritual boring relating to the preparation of stone axes.
    1.7: Snake symbolism.
  2. Utilitarian preparation of substances
    2.1: Preparation of paints.
    2.2: Production of medicines of mineral or organic origins.
    2.3: Pounding of pigments of mineral or plant substances.
    2.4: Preparation of spices or foods.
  3. Mnemonic or record-keeping devices
    3.1: Measurement of time or as calendars. 3.2: Commemoration of major events, such as earthquakes. 3.3: Genealogical markers. 3.4: Recording of pregnancy months. 3.5: Records of stock animals. 3.6: Records of administrators or warriors. 3.7: Records of oaths, e.g. concerning land ownership.
  1. Elements of belief systems
    4.1: Impressions of hands, feet or knees.
    4.2: Use of cupules as receptacles of holy water.
    4.3: Use of the resulting mineral powder in amulets or talismans.
    4.4: Use of cupules in funerary contexts.
    4.5: Release of a life essence in the form of the resulting mineral powder.
    4.6: Use of the resulting mineral powder to induce pregnancy.
    4.7: To influence wind and weather.
    4.8: To attract or replace thunder.
    4.9: Use in reported supplication rituals in recent years. 5.Depiction of heavenly bodies 5.1: Depiction of star constellations. 5.2: Depiction of the Moon or moon phases. 5.3: Depiction of the Sun. 5.4 : Depiction of observations of supernovae. 6.Depiction of topographic elements 6.1: Elements of pre-Historic maps. 6.2: Referents to nearby topographic features, including springs, peaks, rivers and mines. 6.3: Aids in orientation. 6.4: Markers of land property boundaries . 6.5: Purported markers of deposited or hidden goods or treasures.
  1. Board games
    7.1: Use in mancala games.
    7.2: Use in boa games.
    7.3: Games involving the use of marbles or coins.
    7.4: Use in the board game huwais in Arabia.
    7.5: Use in the pursuit game mangura in the Congo. 8.Symbolisms that are no longer recoverable 8.1: Indeterminable cabalistic meaning. 8.2: Writing symbols or messages. 9.Receptacles for offerings 9.1: For offerings to deities or priests. 9.2: For offerings to goblins or lost souls. 9.3: For elves or spirits of nature. 9.4: For offerings by the sick. 9.5: To deposit supplication coins. 9.6: For offerings to flocks of birds to entreat them to spare the fields. 9.7: To place food tokens on the thresholds of churches. 9.8: For depositing coins or jewellery in cupules on stone crosses. 10.Specific symbolisms 10.1Depiction of vulvae, occurring with or without anthropomorphs. 10.2: To commemorate visit of a location. 10.3: Production of cupules with coins to convert these into luck charms.
  1. Other purely utilitarian purposes
    11.1: Use as mortars.
    11.2: Use as recess to keep door hinges in place.
    11.3: Cooking of food. 11.4 Use as recess for salt for animals, such as cattle or deer. 11.5: Receptacles for bird food or to allow butter to melt. 11.6: Illumination or marking of paths with the aid of oil and a wick placed in cupules. 11.7: Receptacles of the first berries of the season. 11.8: Receptacles for smoke or fire signals. 11.9: Use as lamps. 11.10: Production of rock powder for ingestion (geophagy)by humans or animals for medicinal purposes. 11.11: Receptacles for food and water for chickens. 11.12: Receptacles for pointed vertical posts in the construction of buildings. 11.13: Supports for the legs of beehives to prevent entry of specific insects. 11.14: Preparation for splitting of rocks. 11.15: Use to measure quantity of grain. 11.16: Use as lithophones. 11.17: Use to indicate local hydrology >>

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